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Title: Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report

Abstract

The report describes a dual alkali (or double alkali) flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from the flue gas by a soluble sodium-based scrubbing liquor. The collected SO2 is precipitated as calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), or a mixed crystal of both salts, and is purged from the system.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
5719742
Report Number(s):
PB-92-150341/XAB
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: See also PB92-150358, PB92-150366 and PB84-199868.Color illustrations reproduced in black and white. Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; CEA-ADL DUAL ALKALI PROCESS; TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT; FLUE GAS; DESULFURIZATION; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; CALCIUM COMPOUNDS; CALCIUM OXIDES; CALCIUM SULFATES; COAL; COMBUSTION PRODUCTS; FOSSIL-FUEL POWER PLANTS; INDUSTRIAL WASTES; MIXTURES; PARTICLES; SCRUBBING; SODIUM CARBONATES; SULFITES; SULFUR DIOXIDE; ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS; ALKALINE EARTH METAL COMPOUNDS; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS; CARBONATES; CHALCOGENIDES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CONTROL; DISPERSIONS; ENERGY SOURCES; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; GASEOUS WASTES; MATERIALS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; POLLUTION CONTROL; POWER PLANTS; SODIUM COMPOUNDS; SULFATES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SULFUR OXIDES; THERMAL POWER PLANTS; WASTES 540120* -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-); 010800 -- Coal, Lignite, & Peat-- Waste Management; 200202 -- Fossil-Fueled Power Plants-- Waste Management-- Noxious Gas & Particulate Emissions

Citation Formats

Not Available. Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report. United States: N. p., 1980. Web.
Not Available. Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report. United States.
Not Available. 1980. "Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5719742,
title = {Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report},
author = {Not Available},
abstractNote = {The report describes a dual alkali (or double alkali) flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from the flue gas by a soluble sodium-based scrubbing liquor. The collected SO2 is precipitated as calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), or a mixed crystal of both salts, and is purged from the system.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1980,
month =
}

Technical Report:
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  • The report describes the spray dryer flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from flue gas by an atomized lime slurry (Ca(OH)2). The hot flue gas dries the droplets to form a dry waste product, while the absorbent reacts with sulfur dioxide in the flue gas. Dry waste solids are collected in a fabric filter (baghouse) or electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and are typically disposed of by landfill. Descriptions of the process as well as its advantages and costs are included in the report.
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  • A state-of-the-art review of the processes currently being developed for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and sulfur oxides (SO/sub x/) from flue gases, and which may be applicable to coal-fired flue gas, was executed. A list of 21 promising flue gas treatment processes was assembled using information available during the first half of 1977. A detailed technical assessment of 18 of these NO/sub x/-SO/sub x/ removal processes resulted from communications with the process developers. Each detailed technical evaluation contained a process description and simplified block flow diagram, the history and status of development, the published economics, the rawmore » material and utility requirements, the technical and environmental considerations, and the favorable and adverse characteristics for the process. The NO/sub x/-SO/sub x/ removal processes were classified based on the type of NO/sub x/ removal employed. The most advanced types of FGT for NO/sub x/-SO/sub x/ removal are now dry selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and wet oxidation-absorption-reduction. However, all of the processes require further development on larger scale tests and with coal-fired flue gas. Also, the economics included in this report are subject to revision as the processes are examined at larger facilities in the future.« less
  • The purpose of this study is to identify an economic means of keeping higher sulfur content coals in the energy market. Data generated by the Bureau of Mines indicate that some Eastern coals will show a significant reduction in ash and sulfur contents when physically cleaned to a 90% weight yield. With current technology, this level of physical cleaning can often be accomplished at an attractive cost. These coals with reduced ash and sulfur levels are often not too far removed from the sulfur content required to meet environmental standards in the geographic areas historically served by these coals. Whenmore » coal can be physically cleaned to a sulfur content close to that required to meet governing emission standards, a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system treating only a portion of the flue gas would permit the coal burning facility to comply with such emission regulations. In many cases, the net cost of physical cleaning followed by FGD is substantially less than that associated with meeting standards exclusively with a larger capacity FGD system. The overall study findings covering new utility plants using physically cleaned coal followed by FGD indicated a savings of 2% to 112% as compared to meeting standards by FGD alone. The results were even more impressive for existing plants, where study assessments indicated a 13% to 140% savings for physical cleaning followed by FGD as compared to FGD alone.« less