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Title: The hydrothermal system of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

Abstract

Nevado del Ruiz is an andesitic stratovolcano located 150 km northwest of Bogota, Columbia characterized by a large hydrothermal system with two very distinctive types of water: acid sulfate waters, and bicarbonate and neutral chloride waters. The waters within each group fall in well-defined lines on compositional cross plots with an apparent lack of mixing between the two water types. The acid sulfate waters appear to be related to the north-west striking and seismically active Villamaria-Termales fault. The neutral chloride waters are clustered to the west and south-east of the volcano. The bicarbonate waters are more widespread. Several hydrothermally-altered samples from Nevado del Ruiz volcano hydrothermal system were analyzed using X-ray diffraction techniques. It was possible to distinguish two sets of mineral assemblages which correspond to the two water types. The acid sulfate waters produce cristobalite, sulfates, hematite or pyrite, sulfur and minor amounts of trydimite, kaolinite, smectite, and illite. The alteration products at the neutral chloride and bicarbonate waters include mainly carbonates and cristobalite. Simulation of the reaction between the hydrothermal fluids and the basaltic andesites of the lower volcanic units at Ruiz using the computer program CHILLER yielded mineral assemblages which are consistent with the observed alteration mineralogy.more » High chloride and sulfate concentrations, and helium and sulfur isotopes suggest that the acid sulfate waters have an important magmatic contribution. The composition of the neutral chloride an bicarbonate waters suggests mineral equilibria with feldspars and carbonates. Both types of waters appear to be the product of mixing of high salinity end members with different proportions of meteoric water. Linear variations in composition of the gases discharged at Ruiz suggested that the gas phase also represents mixing. Faults and contacts play a key role in the circulation of fluids at Ruiz.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Louisiana State Univ. and Agricultural and Mechanical Coll., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
5698143
Resource Type:
Miscellaneous
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Thesis (Ph.D.)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 58 GEOSCIENCES; GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS; QUALITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; VOLCANOES; HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS; ACID CARBONATES; ACID SULFATES; ANDESITES; C CODES; CHLORIDES; COLOMBIA; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; GEOCHEMISTRY; MINERALOGY; VOLCANIC ROCKS; WATER CHEMISTRY; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; CHEMISTRY; CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; COMPUTER CODES; DEVELOPING COUNTRIES; ENERGY SYSTEMS; FLUIDS; GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS; HALIDES; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; IGNEOUS ROCKS; LATIN AMERICA; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; ROCKS; SIMULATION; SOUTH AMERICA; SULFATES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS 152001* -- Geothermal Data & Theory-- Properties of Aqueous Solutions; 580000 -- Geosciences

Citation Formats

Lopez, D.A.L. The hydrothermal system of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia. United States: N. p., 1992. Web.
Lopez, D.A.L. The hydrothermal system of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia. United States.
Lopez, D.A.L. 1992. "The hydrothermal system of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5698143,
title = {The hydrothermal system of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia},
author = {Lopez, D.A.L.},
abstractNote = {Nevado del Ruiz is an andesitic stratovolcano located 150 km northwest of Bogota, Columbia characterized by a large hydrothermal system with two very distinctive types of water: acid sulfate waters, and bicarbonate and neutral chloride waters. The waters within each group fall in well-defined lines on compositional cross plots with an apparent lack of mixing between the two water types. The acid sulfate waters appear to be related to the north-west striking and seismically active Villamaria-Termales fault. The neutral chloride waters are clustered to the west and south-east of the volcano. The bicarbonate waters are more widespread. Several hydrothermally-altered samples from Nevado del Ruiz volcano hydrothermal system were analyzed using X-ray diffraction techniques. It was possible to distinguish two sets of mineral assemblages which correspond to the two water types. The acid sulfate waters produce cristobalite, sulfates, hematite or pyrite, sulfur and minor amounts of trydimite, kaolinite, smectite, and illite. The alteration products at the neutral chloride and bicarbonate waters include mainly carbonates and cristobalite. Simulation of the reaction between the hydrothermal fluids and the basaltic andesites of the lower volcanic units at Ruiz using the computer program CHILLER yielded mineral assemblages which are consistent with the observed alteration mineralogy. High chloride and sulfate concentrations, and helium and sulfur isotopes suggest that the acid sulfate waters have an important magmatic contribution. The composition of the neutral chloride an bicarbonate waters suggests mineral equilibria with feldspars and carbonates. Both types of waters appear to be the product of mixing of high salinity end members with different proportions of meteoric water. Linear variations in composition of the gases discharged at Ruiz suggested that the gas phase also represents mixing. Faults and contacts play a key role in the circulation of fluids at Ruiz.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1992,
month = 1
}

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  • Temporal and spatial variations in porosity during contact metamorphism of the basaltic country rocks to the Skaergaard intrusion in East Greenland resulted in a complex hydrological evolution of the metamorphic aureole. Contrasts in macroscopic porosities in different lithologies led to differences in mineralogical, bulk chemical, and oxygen isotopic alteration, and units with greater macroscopic porosities record larger fluid flux during metamorphism. Calculated Darcy velocities indicate that the horizontal component of fluid flow in the aureole was toward the intrusive contact. In the actinolite + chlorite zone time-integrated fluid flux was higher in aa units ({approximately} 300 kg cm{sup {minus}2}) thanmore » in massive units ({approximately} 130 kg cm{sup {minus}2}). Approximately equal time-integrated fluxes of respectively 4 and 5 kg cm{sup {minus}2} in aa and massive units in the pyroxene zone indicate that the volume of fluid flow in the higher grade rocks was independent of primary porosity. These results are consistent with inward fluid migration in the actinolite + chlorite zone through an open network of pores whose abundance varied as a function of primary lava morphology. At higher metamorphic grades fluid fluxes were lower and were independent of primary porosity, probably as a consequence of (1) channelization of fluids due to more extensive pore filling and (2) decreasing horizontal component of flow due to upward migration of fluids near the contact. The results of this study indicate that explicit provision for rock porosity aids interpretation of the nature of fluid flow during contact metamorphism in magma-hydrothermal systems.« less
  • Samples from submarine volcanoes and islands were analyzed for concentrations of K, Rb, Sr, Ba, REE, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and some selected samples for {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd. These data show strong variations along the arc, being relatively depleted in the tholeiitic and low-K calc-alkaline volcanoes of the Volcano Arc (VA) and the Mariana Central Island Province (CIP). All of the Mariana Northern Seamount Province (NSP) and Volcano arc Iwo Jima (IJ) are enriched in LIL and LREE, particularly in the northern half, where the lavas have strong shoshonitic affinities. Chemical characteristics of these lavas suggest source- or melt-mixing, with themore » NSP shoshonites being derived from a LIL- and LREE-enriched OIB-like source or melt, while Mariana CIP and Volcano Arc melts are derived from a depleted MORB-like mangle that has been recharged with K, Rb, Sr and Ba by hydrous fluids. Neodymium and strontium isotopic data reveal {var epsilon}{sub Nd} values ranging from +2.4 to +9.5 and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr from 0.70320 to 0.70405. Anomalous trends of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and Ba/La found in some S-NSP lavas suggest that the addition of a sedimentary component may be superimposed on the two component mixing. The lavas from the Mariana and Volcano arcs, therefore, are interpreted as resulting from mixing of at least three components. The bulk of the lavas derive from an OIB-like mantle source (or melt) mixing with various proportions of a metasomatized depleted mantle source (or melt). These hybrid sources may be contaminated with minor amounts of subducted sediment and fluxed by multistage-fractionated metasomatic fluid which is derived from subducted sediment and slab after the mixing of the first two components.« less
  • High-precision mass spectrometer and alpha scintillation measurements of [sup 238]U-series nuclides were obtained for whole-rock pumice and constituent mineral and glass separates to help interpret the timing and nature of magmatic processes that led up to the 1985 eruption of Nevado de Ruiz volcano. Internal isochron diagrams for [sup 226]Ra/Ba vs. [sup 230]Th/Ba and [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th vs. [sup 238]U/[sup 232]Th show that data define linear arrays, indicating an average crystallization age of 6.1 [+-] 0.5 ka (Ra-Th isochron) and 7 [+-] 6 ka (Th-U isochron). Stratigraphic, petrographic geochemical, repose time, and eruption volume data for the Holocene eruptive sequencemore » of Nevado del Ruiz indicate that significant changes occurred in the subvolcanic magma chamber between eruptions R9 ([approx]8.6 ka) and R8 ([approx]3.0 ka). This coincides with the average crystallization age derived from the U-series data and may represent the injection of a new batch (or batches) of mantle-derived magma into the subvolcanic magma chamber. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • This research was conducted to examine the feasibility of hydrothermal treatment of Zr carboxylates as a powder synthesis method, and to develop at fundamental understanding of the hydrolysis chemistry and kinetics of the process. In this research, Zr neo-decanoate in kerosene was prepared by a metathesis reaction between aqueous ZrOCl{sub 2} solutions and Mg neo-decanoate in kerosene. Infrared spectrometric study showed that carboxylate ligands coordinate Zr{sub 4}(OH){sub 8}{sup 8+} tetramers in two ways: monodentate and cisbidentate bridging. During hydrothermal treatment, water molecules displaced monodentate ligands faster than bidentate ligands. Through hydrolysis and polymerization, Zr in the organic phase formed largemore » complexes, which could not be stripped back into the aqueous phase by mineral acid. The precipitates were crystalline ZrO{sub 2}. The broadened peaks of X-ray diffraction pattern hindered distinguishing between the tetragonal and cubic phase, which are high temperature phase with eight-fold coordinated Zr. The precipitates lost about 12-15% weight during calcination, the constituents lost being water and carboxylate ligands. The particles produced in most cases were agglomerates, between 0.5 to 3 {mu}m in size, consisting of smaller particles less than 0.1 {mu}m. Extensive formation of acid insoluble species occurred during treatment at 200{degree}C in all cases where little precipitation was observed. Contacting these carboxylate solutions with dilute hydrochloric acid under ultrasonic agitation gave rapid, extensive precipitation. The precipitation rate increased with hydrochloric acid concentration, decreased with the Mg concentration in the organic phase. The precipitates consisted generally of agglomerates, 1-3 {mu}m in size. Their crystalline structure was tetragonal/cubic.« less