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Title: Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

Abstract

The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation.

Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5687221
Report Number(s):
CONF-8810179-
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-018X; CODEN: TANSA; TRN: 89-027938
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Transactions of the American Nuclear Society; (USA); Journal Volume: 58; Conference: International conference on nuclear fission: fifty years of progress in energy security, Washington, DC (USA), 30 Oct - 4 Nov 1988
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; NUCLEAR POWER; TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION; USSR; ECONOMIC IMPACT; ECONOMICS; ENERGY SOURCE DEVELOPMENT; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS; PROGRAM MANAGEMENT; PUBLIC OPINION; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; SAFETY; WATER COOLED REACTORS; ASIA; EASTERN EUROPE; EUROPE; MANAGEMENT; NUCLEAR FACILITIES; POWER; POWER PLANTS; REACTORS; THERMAL POWER PLANTS; 290600* - Energy Planning & Policy- Nuclear Energy

Citation Formats

Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union. United States: N. p., 1989. Web.
Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union. United States.
Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N. Sun . "Nuclear power in the Soviet Union". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5687221,
title = {Nuclear power in the Soviet Union},
author = {Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.},
abstractNote = {The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation.},
doi = {},
journal = {Transactions of the American Nuclear Society; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 58,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1989},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1989}
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • For a number of years, the Electric Power Research Institute has been studying unique aspects of the Soviet Power Industry, second in size only to that in the United States. Recent first hand reviews by EPRI personnel confirmed the growth of a power industry which, perhaps because of its almost total isolation from Western ideas for more than 50 years, has evolved some fundamentally different concepts in designs, equipment manufacturing, and power distribution. Selected topics of interest to U.S. utilities are discussed in this paper, as extracted from an in-depth visit to the Soviet power industry by the authors.
  • The end of the Cold War precipitated an unprecedented, fast-paced effort by the United States and states of the former Soviet Union (FSU) to dismantle nuclear weapons. At the same time, instability in the FSU as nuclear stockpiles are drawn down has given rise to a proliferation threat potentially more serious than any nuclear crisis faced by the superpowers during their 40-yr standoff. With the FSU more susceptible than ever to proliferation and terrorist threats, it is probable that countries that intend to develop nuclear weapons will attempt or may already have attempted to obtain nuclear material not only frommore » dismantled weapons but from civilian nuclear programs as well. Numerous reports have emerged in the international media during the past year alone on FSU nuclear material being lost, stolen, or recovered following theft attempts. Under the US initiative for nuclear weapons safety, security and dismantlement (SSD), and the President's Nonproliferation Initiative, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are engaged in establishing bilateral technical assistance programs with FSU states in nuclear material safeguards. The overarching objective of US assistance is to help the FSU states improve their capabilities to effectively safeguard and protect nuclear material. The assistance will be carried out under bilateral agreements for cooperation and supported by funds authorized by Congress in the Soviet Nuclear Reduction Act of 1991 and successor legislation, such as the Freedom Support Act (1992).« less
  • In September 1991 President Bush announced sweeping cuts in the US nuclear weapon stockpile as well as changes in deployment to remove significant numbers of weapons from alert status and to return to the US for storage many weapons formerly based abroad in US sites. In October 1991 President Gorbachev announced similar moves for the Soviet Union. Even though the Gorbachev announcement represented a substantial step forward in reducing tension between the US and the Soviet Union, the US continued to be concerned about the deteriorating situation in the Soviet Union and the prospects for internal stability. As a result,more » in November 1991 the Administration began talks with the Soviets in a number of areas including field disablement of nuclear weapons to prevent unauthorized use, emergency response in the event of a weapons accident, and command and control of nuclear weapons. The Nunn-Lugar legislation assured assistance to the Soviet Union in the safe, secure dismantlement (SSD) of weapons to implement the Gorbachev commitment and in the development of measures to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting and collaborating with the Department of Defense (DOD) in several areas due to the DOE responsibilities for developing, assembling, and dismantling US warheads and as the custodian of the nuclear materials stockpile. Russia, as the successor state to the Soviet Union, controls the nuclear weapons of the Former Soviet Union. Thus, DOE`s nuclear weapon and nuclear materials expertise are being applied particularly to Russia. However, the DOE is also providing assistance to Belarus and is prepared to assist Ukraine and Kazakhstan as well if agreements can be reached. In this paper, the DOE SSD activities in support of DOD as the US Executive Agent will be discussed. Two areas will not be covered, namely, DOD activities and the purchase of highly enriched uranium.« less
  • Apart from the large scale contaminations from the reactor accident of Tschernobyl-4, the successor states of the Soviet Union are also exposed to considerable environmental contaminations from the nuclear weapon program. Particularly in the region between Cheliabinsk, and Ekatarinenburg in the South Ural, the beginning of the bomb production caused heavy occupational exposures of up to 1 Gy per year in the reprocessing of plutonium and discharges of significant activities of fissile material (10{sup 17} Bq (3 MCi)) into the Techa River and the lakes in the catchment basin. Communities situated downriver, which were supplied with drinking water from themore » Techa in the beginning of the 50s, received doses to the bone marrow of up to 3 Gy, due to {sup 90}S ingestion. Significantly increased risks are found for leukemia and solid tumors in the South Ural region whereas childhood thyroid carcinomas are reported around Chernobyl. The body burden for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs was determined.« less