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Title: Factors influencing formation of trihalomethanes in drinking water with special reference to Swedish conditions

Abstract

The trihalomethane (THM) concentrations in drinking water are greatly affected by the disinfection methods as well as the organic content of the water. The THM formation was shown to increase considerable during 24 hours. This indicates a higher concentration of THM at the consumers' tap compared to the levels in the outgoing water from the water work. The dosage ratio between chlorine and ammonium sulphate can be used to regulate the THM concentrations. Disinfection with a relatively high dosage of chlorine dramatically increase the THM level while the equal amount of chlorine dioxide produces trace concentrations of THM only. The relatively low THM concentrations in Swedish drinking water as compared to levels found in water from for example the USA may probably depend on the low chlorine dosage practiced in Sweden.

Authors:
 [1]; ; ;
  1. (National Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5656233
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Chemosphere; (United States); Journal Volume: 10:11-12
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; DRINKING WATER; HALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; CHLORINATION; CHLORINE; CHLORINE OXIDES; DISINFECTANTS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; SWEDEN; AROMATICS; CHALCOGENIDES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; ELEMENTS; EUROPE; GERMICIDES; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; HALOGENATION; HALOGENS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; NONMETALS; ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; SCANDINAVIA; WATER; WESTERN EUROPE; 520200* - Environment, Aquatic- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Norin, H., Renberg, L., Hjort, J., and Lundblad, P.O. Factors influencing formation of trihalomethanes in drinking water with special reference to Swedish conditions. United States: N. p., 1981. Web. doi:10.1016/0045-6535(81)90043-6.
Norin, H., Renberg, L., Hjort, J., & Lundblad, P.O. Factors influencing formation of trihalomethanes in drinking water with special reference to Swedish conditions. United States. doi:10.1016/0045-6535(81)90043-6.
Norin, H., Renberg, L., Hjort, J., and Lundblad, P.O. Tue . "Factors influencing formation of trihalomethanes in drinking water with special reference to Swedish conditions". United States. doi:10.1016/0045-6535(81)90043-6.
@article{osti_5656233,
title = {Factors influencing formation of trihalomethanes in drinking water with special reference to Swedish conditions},
author = {Norin, H. and Renberg, L. and Hjort, J. and Lundblad, P.O.},
abstractNote = {The trihalomethane (THM) concentrations in drinking water are greatly affected by the disinfection methods as well as the organic content of the water. The THM formation was shown to increase considerable during 24 hours. This indicates a higher concentration of THM at the consumers' tap compared to the levels in the outgoing water from the water work. The dosage ratio between chlorine and ammonium sulphate can be used to regulate the THM concentrations. Disinfection with a relatively high dosage of chlorine dramatically increase the THM level while the equal amount of chlorine dioxide produces trace concentrations of THM only. The relatively low THM concentrations in Swedish drinking water as compared to levels found in water from for example the USA may probably depend on the low chlorine dosage practiced in Sweden.},
doi = {10.1016/0045-6535(81)90043-6},
journal = {Chemosphere; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 10:11-12,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 1981},
month = {Tue Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 1981}
}
  • Sources of ion supply to natural inland waters include not only rocks and soils but also the atmosphere, whose significance has been underestimated. Atmospheric materials are transferred to surface waters by rain or snow, as dry fallout, or in gaseous form; the sources are the sea, land surfaces, volcanoes, products of air pollution, or organic debris. Ion supply by soil and rock weathering, which is usually more important than atmospheric supply, involves solution, oxidation reduction reactions, activity of hydrogen ions, and complex formation. Transfer from soils to waters. 246 references, 23 tables.
  • Trihalomethanes (THMs) are one group of harmful chlorinated compounds which are known to contaminate drinking water. The total concentration of the four THMs in drinking water may vary up to 1000 {mu}g/l but it should not exceed 100 {mu}g/l. Toxicological studies suggest that chloroform and other THMs may have detrimental effect on human health. Chloroform was reported to cause cancer in experimental animals. Other THMs, based on the structural similarity to chloroform, may be also classified as health hazard compounds. Accordingly, THMs in water supplies should be monitored closely so that measures may be taken to minimize or eliminate theirmore » presence whenever the concentration approach levels of concern. Little is known about the levels of THMs in drinking water of Egypt compared to other countries. Few studies have been reported from Cairo. To our knowledge, no studies concerning the THMs levels in drinking water have been reported from Alexandria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to detect and quantitate the levels of THMs in drinking water from some main districts in Alexandria, Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) is a fast, sensitive, inexpensive, portable and solvent-free method for extracting organic compounds from aqueous samples. It is amenable to automation and can be used with any gas chromatograph (or mass spectrometer). The technique meets detection limits specified by EPA methods and was therefore used in this work.« less
  • Formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) as a result of drinking water chlorination is well documented. The presence of THMs in drinking water may adversely affect human health. The objectives of this study are to determine the concentration levels of THMs in drinking water of eight major cities in Saudi Arabia and to compare these concentrations with Saudi Arabian Water standards, as well as with THMs concentrations reported in drinking water in other parts of the world.
  • Drinking water of the Dammam metropolitan area is a blend of raw well water and desalinated water obtained from the Al-Azizia seawater desalination plant. Chlorination is the only disinfection method applied to the blended water before the water is pumped into the distribution system. Chlorination of water containing organic compounds results in the formation of trihalomethanes. In general, the known carcinogenic and physiological effects of THMs other than chloroform are limited. However, based on their structural similarity to chloroform, these compounds can be considered health hazards. The present study was carried out in order to determine the extent of themore » occurrence of THMs in finished drinking water in some of the major cities of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.« less
  • The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of drinking water is an issue which has drawn significant scientific attention due to the possible adverse effects that these compounds have on human health and the formation of another DBPs. Some factors that affect the formation of DBPs include: chlorine dose and residue, contact time, temperature, pH and natural organic matter (NOM). The most frequently detected DBPs in drinking water are trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). The MCLs are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for drinking water quality established in Stage 1, Disinfectants and Disinfectionmore » Byproducts Rule (DBPR), and they limit the amount of potentially hazardous substances that are allowed in drinking water. The water quality data for THMs were evaluated in the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA). During this evaluation, the THMs exceeded the maximum contamination limit (MCLs) for the Comerio Water Treatment Plant (CWTP). USEPA classified the THMs as Group B2 carcinogens (shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals). This research evaluated the THMs concentrations in the following sampling sites: CWTP, Río Hondo and Piñas Abajo schools, Comerio Health Center (CDT), and the Vázquez Ortiz family, in the municipality of Comerio Puerto Rcio. The results show that the factors affecting the formation of THMs occur in different concentrations across the distribution line. Furthermore, there are not specific ranges to determine the formation of THMs in drinking water when the chemical and physical parameters were evaluated. Three different nanostructured materials (graphene, mordenite (MOR) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)) were used in this research, to reduce the THMs formation by adsorption in specific contact times. The results showed that graphene is the best nanomaterial to reduce THMs in drinking water. Graphene can reduce 80 parts per billion (ppb) of THMs in about 2 hours. In addition mordenite can reduce approximately 80 ppb of THMs and MWCNTs adsorbs 71 ppb of THMs in the same period of time respectively. Finally, in order to complement the adsorption results previously obtained, total organic carbon (TOC) analyses were measured, after different contact times with the nanomaterials.« less