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Title: Spherical torus fusion reactor

Abstract

The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

Inventors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5641672
Application Number:
ON: DE86013767
Assignee:
Dept. of Energy TIC; ERA-11-006752; EDB-86-141419
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-84OR21400
Resource Type:
Patent
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; TOKAMAK TYPE REACTORS; DESIGN; SPHERICAL CONFIGURATION; ASPECT RATIO; SPECIFICATIONS; CONFIGURATION; THERMONUCLEAR REACTORS; 700200* - Fusion Energy- Fusion Power Plant Technology

Citation Formats

Martin Peng, Y.K.M. Spherical torus fusion reactor. United States: N. p., 1985. Web.
Martin Peng, Y.K.M. Spherical torus fusion reactor. United States.
Martin Peng, Y.K.M. Thu . "Spherical torus fusion reactor". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5641672,
title = {Spherical torus fusion reactor},
author = {Martin Peng, Y.K.M.},
abstractNote = {The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Oct 03 00:00:00 EDT 1985},
month = {Thu Oct 03 00:00:00 EDT 1985}
}
  • A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to producemore » a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.« less
  • A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to producemore » a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.« less
  • This system study extrapolates present physics knowledge and technology to predict the anticipated characteristics of D-He3 spherical torus fusion reactors and their sensitivity to uncertainties in important parameters. Reference cases for steady-state 1000 MWe reactors operating in H-mode in both the 1st stability regime and the 2nd stability regime were developed and assessed quantitatively. These devices would a very small aspect ratio (A=1,2), a major radius of about 2.0 m, an on-a%,,44s magnetic field less than 2 T, a large plasma current (80-120 MA) dominated by the bootstrap effect, and high plasma beta (>O.6). The estimated cost of electricity ismore » in the range of 60-90 mills/kW-hr, assuming the use of a direct energy conversion system. The inherent safety and environmental advantages of D-He3 fusion indicate that this reactor concept could be competitive with advanced fission breeder reactors and large-scale solar electric plants by the end of the 21st century if research and development can produce the anticipated physics and technology advances.« less
  • One of the potentially attractive applications of nuclear fusion is to breed fissile fuel for use in fission reactors. This thesis examines a novel nonpower-producing fusion reactor based on the spherical torus concept with a catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel cycle and aqueous self-cooled blanket for use as a fissile breeder. The breeding of fissile fuel is accomplished by dissolving a uranium salt, uranyl nitrite, in heavy water which flows through the first wall and blanket providing both cooling and fissile breeding. The need for tritium breeding is eliminated by the use of a catalyzed D-D fuel cycle. Analysis of this novelmore » reactor concept indicates a fissile breeding ratio of 1.34 Pu-239/source neutron using a 15-cm beryllium moderator and 7 mo1% uranyl nitrite in the heavy water. A typical reactor using this blanket can produce more than 8000 kg/yr of plutonium at a cost of less than $40 per gram. This indicates the potential for a reactor which can provide fissile fuel at, or below, its current mined cost.« less
  • A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 204 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1630 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment were performed on all major systems including nuclear fusion reactor, magnetic nozzle, power conversion, fast wave plasma heating, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery, and other systems. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance andmore » utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/X-ray radiation.« less