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Title: A comprehensive study on the effects of temperature, surface age, added surfactant, salinity, and bulk viscosity on coalescence time, film rigidity, and interfacial tension: Topical report

Abstract

The interfacial behavior of a Wilmington crude oil was studied as part of our investigations of enhanced oil recovery by weakly alkaline solutions. For some systems, the spinning drop appratus can be used to measure transient interfacial tension (IFT) effects, coalescence times of oil drops, and film rigidity simultaneously, for rapid screening of chemical slug composition for the potential of improving oil recovery by the mechanisms of oil mobilization and oil bank formation. The experimental results presented include the effects of temperature, surface age, salinity, added surfactant, and polymer on coalescence time, film rigidity, and IFT behavior. Oil displacement tests were performed using surfactant-enhanced bicarbonte solutions formulated for improved mobility control and for improved oil mobilization and oil drop coalescence. The most significant result of this work was that we were able to measure the dynamics in IFT between 2 coalescing oil drops as perturbations in the equilibrium concentration of surfactant at the interface occurred during film drainage. The accuracy of the technique for measuring IFT and film rigidity improved as the contact radii between the oil drops increased. 17 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5635251
Report Number(s):
NIPER-278
ON: DE88001211
DOE Contract Number:
FC22-83FE60149
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Portions of this document are illegible in microfiche products. Original copy available until stock is exhausted
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; CAUSTIC FLOODING; BENCH-SCALE EXPERIMENTS; OIL WELLS; PETROLEUM; COALESCENCE; SURFACE TENSION; BRINES; CONTROL; DENSITY; ENHANCED RECOVERY; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; INTERFACES; MEASURING METHODS; MOBILITY; POLYMERS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; SALINITY; SODIUM CARBONATES; SODIUM CHLORIDES; SURFACTANTS; TEMPERATURE EFFECTS; VISCOSITY; ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CARBONATES; CHLORIDES; CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; DATA; ENERGY SOURCES; FLUID INJECTION; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; HALIDES; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; INFORMATION; NUMERICAL DATA; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; RECOVERY; SODIUM COMPOUNDS; SURFACE PROPERTIES; WATERFLOODING; WELLS; 020300* - Petroleum- Drilling & Production

Citation Formats

Peru, D.A., and Lorenz, P.B.. A comprehensive study on the effects of temperature, surface age, added surfactant, salinity, and bulk viscosity on coalescence time, film rigidity, and interfacial tension: Topical report. United States: N. p., 1988. Web.
Peru, D.A., & Lorenz, P.B.. A comprehensive study on the effects of temperature, surface age, added surfactant, salinity, and bulk viscosity on coalescence time, film rigidity, and interfacial tension: Topical report. United States.
Peru, D.A., and Lorenz, P.B.. 1988. "A comprehensive study on the effects of temperature, surface age, added surfactant, salinity, and bulk viscosity on coalescence time, film rigidity, and interfacial tension: Topical report". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5635251,
title = {A comprehensive study on the effects of temperature, surface age, added surfactant, salinity, and bulk viscosity on coalescence time, film rigidity, and interfacial tension: Topical report},
author = {Peru, D.A. and Lorenz, P.B.},
abstractNote = {The interfacial behavior of a Wilmington crude oil was studied as part of our investigations of enhanced oil recovery by weakly alkaline solutions. For some systems, the spinning drop appratus can be used to measure transient interfacial tension (IFT) effects, coalescence times of oil drops, and film rigidity simultaneously, for rapid screening of chemical slug composition for the potential of improving oil recovery by the mechanisms of oil mobilization and oil bank formation. The experimental results presented include the effects of temperature, surface age, salinity, added surfactant, and polymer on coalescence time, film rigidity, and IFT behavior. Oil displacement tests were performed using surfactant-enhanced bicarbonte solutions formulated for improved mobility control and for improved oil mobilization and oil drop coalescence. The most significant result of this work was that we were able to measure the dynamics in IFT between 2 coalescing oil drops as perturbations in the equilibrium concentration of surfactant at the interface occurred during film drainage. The accuracy of the technique for measuring IFT and film rigidity improved as the contact radii between the oil drops increased. 17 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1988,
month = 1
}

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  • Three crude oils from Bell Creek, Bradford, and Delaware-Childers fields were separated into distillates, acids, bases and heavy ends hydrocarbon. The effect of these components on the solubilization, optimal salinity, and bases shifted the optimal salinity significantly; their effects on the solubilization and interfacial tension are smaller. The bases appear to interact with the sulfonates, causing desorption from the interface, phase separation, and higher interfacial tension. The hydrocarbons, as expected have the strongest influence on the properties studied, due to their high concentration. The importance of the chemical nature and molecular weights of these components was also apparent. Even thoughmore » the product sigma*/sup 2/..gamma.. is not constant, it was found that there is a definite relation between the solubilization (sigma*) and the interfacial tension (..gamma..). This is true even for such complex compounds as acids and bases. 41 references, 6 figures, 14 tables.« less
  • Coalescence data were obtained for Wilmington crude oil droplets in sodium bicarbonate brine using a vertically inclined spinning drop tensiometer. The effect of temperature and aging on drop-drop coalescence was evaluated. In most cases, film drainage is considered to be the rate-limiting process prior to coalescence. Results indicate that coalescence time is dependent on temperature, being long at low temperature and short at high temperatures. Aging of the oil drops in alkaline brine appeared to decrease coalescence time although the effect was more noticeable at high temperature. Natural surfactants produced from the reaction of bicarbonate brine with strong acids inmore » Wilmington crude oil appeared to inhibit drop-drop coalescence probably due to a surfactant concentration gradient which was providing resistance to flow at the interface. The period of time that interfacial tension remained at a dynamic minimum was directly related to coalescence time. A spinning drop tensiometer was found to be useful in obtaining drop-drop coalescence data. The apparatus is simple to operate and could be used in laboratory optimization of the mechanisms of oil mobilization and oil bank formation. 16 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.« less
  • Interfaces play a key role in dictating the long-term stability of materials under the influence of radiation and high temperatures. For example, grain boundaries affect corrosion by way of providing kinetically favorable paths for elemental diffusion, but they can also act as sinks for defects and helium generated during irradiation. Likewise, the retention of high-temperature strength in nanostructured, oxide-dispersion strengthened steels depends strongly on the stoichiometric and physical stability of the (Y, Ti)-oxide particles/matrix interface under radiation and high temperatures. An understanding of these interfacial effects at a fundamental level is important for the development of materials for extreme environmentsmore » of nuclear reactors. The goal of this project is to develop an understanding stability of interfaces by depositing thin films of materials on substrates followed by ion irradiation of the film-substrate system at elevated temperatures followed by post-irradiation oxidation treatments. Specifically, the research will be performed by depositing thin films of yttrium and titanium (~500 nm) on Fe-12%Cr binary alloy substrate. Y and Ti have been selected as thin-film materials because they form highly stable protective oxides layers. The Fe-12%Cr binary alloy has been selected because it is representative of ferritic steels that are widely used in nuclear systems. The absence of other alloying elements in this binary alloy would allow for a clearer examination of structures and compositions that evolve during high-temperature irradiations and oxidation treatments. The research is divided into four specific tasks: (1) sputter deposition of 500 nm thick films of Y and Ti on Fe-12%Cr alloy substrates, (2) ion irradiation of the film-substrate system with 2MeV protons to a dose of 2 dpa at temperatures of 300°C, 500°C, and 700°C, (3) oxidation of as-deposited and ion-irradiated samples in a controlled oxygen environment at 500°C and 700°C, (4) multi-scale computational modeling involving first- principle molecular dynamics (FPMD) and coarse-grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) approaches to develop theories underlying the evolution and stability of structures and phases. Samples from Tasks 1 to 3 (above) will be rigorously characterized and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford back scatter spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Expected outcomes of the experimental work include a quantitative understanding film-substrate interface mixing, evolution of defects and other phases at the interface, interaction of interfaces with defects, and the ability of the Y and Ti films to mitigate irradiation-assisted oxidation.The aforementioned experimental work will be closely coupled with multi-scale molecular dynamics (MD) modeling to understand the reactions at the surface, the transport of oxidant through the thin film, and the stabilities of the deposited thin films under radiation and oxidation. Simulations of materials property changes under conditions of radiation and oxidation require multiple size domains and a different simulation scheme for each of these domains. This will be achieved by coupling the FPMD and coarse-grained kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). This will enable the comparison of the results of each simulation approach with the experimental results.« less
  • Adsorption of sodium dodecylsulfate, Triton X-100, decyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactants onto silica gel and Berea sandstone mineral surfaces has been studied as a function of temperature, solution salt concentration, and mineral surface wettability. Adsorption studies using a flow calorimeter were conducted using pure surfactants and minerals. The studies were then extended to the adsorption of one type of commercial surfactant onto both consolidated and crushed Berea sandstone using column techniques. This has allowed the comparison of different methods to evaluate surfactant losses from flowing rather than static surfactant solutions. 20 refs., 15 figs., 37 tabs.