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Title: Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

Abstract

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. householdmore » refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
555370
Report Number(s):
ORNL/CP-95275; CONF-971151-
ON: DE98001421; BR: EC1204000; TRN: AHC29802%%39
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-96OR22464
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: International conference on ozone protection technologies, Baltimore, MD (United States), 12-13 Nov 1997; Other Information: PBD: [1997]
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 29 ENERGY PLANNING AND POLICY; CLIMATIC CHANGE; REFRIGERANTS; OZONE LAYER; INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS; FLUORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS; CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS; REFRIGERATING MACHINERY; AIR CONDITIONERS; REFRIGERATORS; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

Citation Formats

Fischer, S., Sand, J., and Baxter, V. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies. United States: N. p., 1997. Web.
Fischer, S., Sand, J., & Baxter, V. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies. United States.
Fischer, S., Sand, J., and Baxter, V. Mon . "Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/555370.
@article{osti_555370,
title = {Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies},
author = {Fischer, S. and Sand, J. and Baxter, V.},
abstractNote = {International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1997},
month = {12}
}

Conference:
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