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Title: Macrofouling control technology update

Abstract

Macrofouling of condenser systems with debris, fish, clams, barnacles, mussels, algae, and other marine organisms can significantly affect power plant availability and performance. Typical difficulties include increased condenser back pressure due to reduced cooling-water flow, malfunctioning of on-line tube-cleaning equipment, and accelerated corrosion and erosion of tubing. In some severe cases, condenser back pressure increased to a point that the turbine had to be tripped. In 1981 EPRI initiated a research project to develop utility industry guidelines for reducing macrofouling problems. In 1987 EPRI published the Guidelines on Macrofouling Control Technology. Since then significant progress has been made by EPRI, utility members, equipment manufacturers, and others. The purpose of this paper is to update the macrofouling control technology. Control technology covered will include thermal treatment, mechanical removal devices, antifouling coatings, and chemical treatment.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
549946
Report Number(s):
CONF-961006-
ISBN 0-7918-1796-2; TRN: IM9753%%21
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 1996 international joint power generation conference, Houston, TX (United States), 13-17 Oct 1996; Other Information: PBD: 1996; Related Information: Is Part Of 1996 international joint power generation conference: Proceedings. Volume 2; PWR-Volume 30; Kielasa, L. [ed.] [Detroit Edison Co., MI (United States)]; Weed, G.E. [ed.] [Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (United States)]; PB: 936 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; BIOLOGICAL FOULING; STEAM CONDENSERS; ANTIFOULANTS; FISHES; CLAMS; MUSSELS; MOLLUSCS; ALGAE

Citation Formats

Tsou, J.L., and Armor, A.F. Macrofouling control technology update. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
Tsou, J.L., & Armor, A.F. Macrofouling control technology update. United States.
Tsou, J.L., and Armor, A.F. Tue . "Macrofouling control technology update". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_549946,
title = {Macrofouling control technology update},
author = {Tsou, J.L. and Armor, A.F.},
abstractNote = {Macrofouling of condenser systems with debris, fish, clams, barnacles, mussels, algae, and other marine organisms can significantly affect power plant availability and performance. Typical difficulties include increased condenser back pressure due to reduced cooling-water flow, malfunctioning of on-line tube-cleaning equipment, and accelerated corrosion and erosion of tubing. In some severe cases, condenser back pressure increased to a point that the turbine had to be tripped. In 1981 EPRI initiated a research project to develop utility industry guidelines for reducing macrofouling problems. In 1987 EPRI published the Guidelines on Macrofouling Control Technology. Since then significant progress has been made by EPRI, utility members, equipment manufacturers, and others. The purpose of this paper is to update the macrofouling control technology. Control technology covered will include thermal treatment, mechanical removal devices, antifouling coatings, and chemical treatment.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1996},
month = {Tue Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1996}
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • This report is divided into five parts corresponding to the five symposium sessions in which formal presentations and discussions were held. Session 1 discussed the nature of macrofouling problems in general and their impact on power plant operation. Session 2 discussed chemical control technologies, basically chlorine minimization, continuous low-level chlorination, cost of chlorination for the utility industry, and the effects of organotins on marine organisms. Session 3 discussed international experiences (from the United States, France, Germany and the Netherlands) with mechanical controls such as intake screening, in-line filters, and thermal backwash. Alternate control technologies, including antifouling coatings and sheetings, nontoxicmore » sheetings, acoustical, velocity, and Cathelco, were discussed in Session 4. Session 5 consisted of information exchange workshops on utility experience with mechanical and chemical controls. The workshop's notes are presented in this report. Papers presented at the symposium are included. Each paper has been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.« less
  • Macrofouling of cooling-water systems is one of the more significant and costly problems encountered in the nuclear power industry. Both marine and freshwater macroinvertebrates can be responsible for losses in plant availability because of plugged intakes and heat transfer equipment. There is a greater diversity of macrofouling organisms in marine waters than in fresh waters. Marine macrofouling organisms include barnacles, mollusks, bryozoans, and hydroids. Barnacles are crustaceans with feathery appendages, which allow them to attach to a variety of surfaces. They are a major cause of severe macrofouling because they can remain attached even after death. The major freshwater macrofoulingmore » organisms include the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the newest freshwater macrofouler, the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The introduction of the Zebra Mussel into the Great Lakes has created economic and ecological problems that will not easily be solved. The threat of intercontinental dispersal of the Zebra Mussel in America is serious. Research programs have been initiated around the country to develop control methods for this macrofouling problem. The various control methodologies can be classified in the following categories: biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of Actibrom against mature Zebra Mussels.« less
  • Condenser macrofouling is a major source of problems causing poor power plant availability and efficiency. This report presents the evaluation of antifouling coatings (toxic and nontoxic) and mechanical controls (screens and filters), together with recommended practices for intake screening and debris filters. Seven toxic coatings, applied on steel and concrete surfaces, were tested and evaluated at 19 generating stations located on the Pacific, Gulf, and Atlantic coasts over a 3-year period from 1983 to 1986. These coatings are ranked as to their performance. In addition, two nontoxic coatings of the low surface energy type were tested and evaluated. Traveling screenmore » modifications designed to reduce or eliminate carry-over and to handle fish and heavy influxes of debris were evaluated at 13 generating stations located on the Pacific, Gulf, and Atlantic coasts, Puerto Rico, the Great Lakes, and on various rivers. These include through-flow, dual-flow, and angled-screen arrangements. Modifications include materials, variable speed drive control systems, upgrading of mechanical features for continuous operation, various screen meshes, fish buckets, dual-spray systems, debris scrapers, and various anticlogging features for the screenwash systems. Debris filters that supplement intake screening were evaluated at 10 generating stations located on the Pacific and Gulf coasts, and on various rivers. Three commercially available types most commonly used in the US and three ''home made'' designs were evaluated. Antifouling coatings and mechanical controls proved to be effective as macrofouling control measures. The acrylic-tributyltin polymer coating with cuprous oxide cotoxicant and rosinated vinyl with cuprous oxide toxicant were most effective. Recommended practices (guidelines) for intake screening and debris filters are discussed in detail.« less
  • The decade of the 1980`s was one of rapid change for both gas turbine emission control regulations and the technologies used to meet those regulations. The primary pollutant of concern from gas turbines has been, and continues to be, oxides of nitrogen. The Gas Turbine New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), issued in 1979, did not regulate the emissions of carbon monoxide or unburned hydrocarbons from gas turbines because the levels are very low due to the low water or steam injection rates needed to control NO{sub x} to the NSPS levels. However, in December 1987, EPA`s {open_quotes}top-down approach{close_quotes} for determiningmore » the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) became a requirement. This ratcheted allowable gas turbine NO{sub x} emission levels down to levels significantly lower than the NSPS. As the allowable NO{sub x} levels decreased, carbon monoxide emissions started to become more of a concern due to the increase in CO levels resulting from massive amounts of steam or water being injected to control NO{sub x} to the lower levels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have resulted in the imposition of new emission control requirements not only for NO{sub x}, but also for CO and VOCs in ozone nonattainment areas that has broken new ground for the decade of the 1990`s, as the 1977 Amendments did in the 1980`s.« less