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Title: Biological processes in the water column of the south Atlantic bight: Zooplankton responses: Progress report

Abstract

The studies on which we report in the following segments represent interdisciplinary efforts to understand interactions of physical, chemical and biological processes on the southeastern continental shelf of the USA. The Georgia Bight Experiment was designed to determine the physical forces responsible for upwelling on the northeastern Florida and Georgia shelf during summer, trajectories and fate of those upwellings, and major chemical and biological processes therein. 5 refs.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5466007
Report Number(s):
DOE/ER/60354-3
ON: DE88004811
DOE Contract Number:
FG09-85ER60354
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; PHYTOPLANKTON; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; SOUTH ATLANTIC BIGHT; OCEANOGRAPHY; ZOOPLANKTON; ABUNDANCE; COASTAL WATERS; FLORIDA; GEORGIA; NITROGEN CYCLE; PROGRESS REPORT; UPWELLING; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; ATLANTIC OCEAN; DISTRIBUTION; DOCUMENT TYPES; FEDERAL REGION IV; NORTH AMERICA; PLANKTON; SEAS; SURFACE WATERS; USA; 580500* - Oceanography- (1980-1989); 520500 - Environment, Aquatic- Site Resource & Use Studies- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Paffenhoefer, G.A. Biological processes in the water column of the south Atlantic bight: Zooplankton responses: Progress report. United States: N. p., 1987. Web.
Paffenhoefer, G.A. Biological processes in the water column of the south Atlantic bight: Zooplankton responses: Progress report. United States.
Paffenhoefer, G.A. 1987. "Biological processes in the water column of the south Atlantic bight: Zooplankton responses: Progress report". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5466007,
title = {Biological processes in the water column of the south Atlantic bight: Zooplankton responses: Progress report},
author = {Paffenhoefer, G.A.},
abstractNote = {The studies on which we report in the following segments represent interdisciplinary efforts to understand interactions of physical, chemical and biological processes on the southeastern continental shelf of the USA. The Georgia Bight Experiment was designed to determine the physical forces responsible for upwelling on the northeastern Florida and Georgia shelf during summer, trajectories and fate of those upwellings, and major chemical and biological processes therein. 5 refs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1987,
month =
}

Technical Report:
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  • We report interdisciplinary efforts to understand interactions of physical, chemical, and biological processes on the southeastern continental shelf of the USA. One effort will determine the physical forces responsible for upwelling on the northeastern Florida and Georgia shelf during summer, trajectories and fate of those upwellings, and major chemical and biological processes therein. Additional experiments will determine the extent of removal of nearshore water towards offshore, and the fate of plankton between Savannah and Cape Fear. We suspect that strong north- to eastward wind stress could displace large volumes of low-salinity nearshore water rapidly across the shelf to the Gulfmore » Stream. A third study quantified the cycling of nitrogen in the estuary and nearshore zone. Our contribution was to determine consumption, excretion and excrementation of nitrogen by abundant metazooplankton during winter and summer. In a fourth study strong southward wind stress during fall maintains low salinity water close to the coast and displaces it southward. We suspect that this nearshore water was transported offshore near Cape Canaveral, or further north across the north Florida shelf when winds would change to northward. 5 refs., 2 figs.« less
  • The effects of wind forcing on water displacement from the near- to the offshore environment of the southeastern continental shelf are discussed. This report presents information on zooplankton abundance and distribution in relation to hydrographic variables. 7 figs. (ACR)
  • It is our objective to determine the major processes governing the abundance, composition and disruption of zooplankton as part of the interdisciplinary southeastern US continental shelf program of the Department of Energy. We will study the effects of physical processes such as along- and cross shelf advection and frontogenesis, on the development and fate of zooplankton populations during winter. Our proposed research consists of shipboard sampling, laboratory experiments and in situ determination of zooplankton abundance over time. The last objective represents a novel approach because the observations are (a) non-destructive with great spatial resolution, and (b) occur on current metermore » arrays at similar scales as measurements of current velocity and direction. Results to date show prolonged residence times of upwelled water masses on the middle and inner shelf during summer which results in the development of massive copepod and tunicate populations. During spring, the extent of displacement of nearshore zooplankton was a function of wind stress. Our results can be used to predict the impact of energy-related technology on the ecosystem of the southeastern continental shelf. 8 refs., 6 figs.« less
  • During April of 1984 and 1985 we studied the effects of wind forcing on water flow on the inner and middle shelf off Georgia and South Carolina. We present in this Progress Report selected data from our SPREX cruise (Spring Runoff Experiment) in April 1985 and compare the date with results from our Pre-SPREX cruise in April 1984. River runoff in April 1985 was about 50% lower than the previous average. The overall water flow at midshelf off Charleston was alongshore at the surface and onshore near bottom. The water column was well mixed and started to show signs ofmore » stratification by the end of April 1985. The water flow data indicate that nearshore zooplankton would hardly be displaced towards offshore, whereas offshore zooplankton would be transported towards shore. A comparison of results from April 1984 with those from April 1985 shows major differences: Fairly high runoff and pronounced displacement of nearshore water towards offshore with northeastward wind stress resulted in strong offshore displacement of estuarine zooplankton in surface waters (April 1984). Low runoff and weak alongshore displacement of surface water with weak windstress resulted in no offshore displacement of estuarine zooplankton which were at abnormally low concentrations in their habitat (April 1985).« less
  • The goal of the Fall Removal Experiment 1987 was to determine the processes affecting the dependent and fate of low salinity coastal water and of biological material therein during fall when winds are mainly south-to westward. Five zooplankton taxa, Acartia tonsa, (A. tonsa) Paracalanus species (sp), Temora turbinata (T. turbinata), Oncaea sp, and Sagitta enflata were examined. Data on the distribution of all five taxa were presented, and distribution over time was also studied. The abundance of A. tonsa decreased tenfold over the 13 day sampling period, Paracalanus varied twofold and T. Turbinata showed little variability. The A. tonsa decreasemore » was postulated to result from food abundance or predation, although the possible role of size distribution, water displacement and chlorophyll distribution will be examined in the future. A possible role of turbulence in zooplankton abundance is being examined. 8 refs., 5 figs.« less