skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Detection of imprinting mutations in Angelman syndrome using a probe for exon {alpha} of SNRPN

Abstract

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are distinct clinical disorders resulting from deficiency of paternal (PWS) or maternal (AS) expression of imprinted genes within chromosome 15q11-q13. 15 refs., 1 fig.

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States) [and others
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
539196
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: American Journal of Medical Genetics; Journal Volume: 63; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: PBD: 17 May 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
55 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, BASIC STUDIES; PATIENTS; HEREDITARY DISEASES; GENETICS; HUMAN CHROMOSOME 1; GENETIC MAPPING; GENE MUTATIONS; DETECTION; GENES; GENE REGULATION; TRANSCRIPTION; METHYLATION; DNA SEQUENCING; DNA-CLONING; PROBES; NUCLEOTIDES; DNA HYBRIDIZATION

Citation Formats

Beuten, J., Sutcliffe, J.S., and Casey, B.M. Detection of imprinting mutations in Angelman syndrome using a probe for exon {alpha} of SNRPN. United States: N. p., 1996. Web. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320630206.
Beuten, J., Sutcliffe, J.S., & Casey, B.M. Detection of imprinting mutations in Angelman syndrome using a probe for exon {alpha} of SNRPN. United States. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320630206.
Beuten, J., Sutcliffe, J.S., and Casey, B.M. 1996. "Detection of imprinting mutations in Angelman syndrome using a probe for exon {alpha} of SNRPN". United States. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320630206.
@article{osti_539196,
title = {Detection of imprinting mutations in Angelman syndrome using a probe for exon {alpha} of SNRPN},
author = {Beuten, J. and Sutcliffe, J.S. and Casey, B.M.},
abstractNote = {Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are distinct clinical disorders resulting from deficiency of paternal (PWS) or maternal (AS) expression of imprinted genes within chromosome 15q11-q13. 15 refs., 1 fig.},
doi = {10.1002/ajmg.1320630206},
journal = {American Journal of Medical Genetics},
number = 2,
volume = 63,
place = {United States},
year = 1996,
month = 5
}
  • Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are associated with paternal and maternal deficiencies respectively, of gene expression within human chromosome 15q11-q13, and are caused by deletion, uniparental disomy (UPD), or other mutations. The SNRPN gene maps in this region, is paternally expressed, and is a candidate gene for PWS. Southern blotting using methylation-sensitive enzymes and a genomic DNA probe from the CpG island containing exon {alpha} of the SNRPN gene reveals methylation specific for the maternal allele. In cases of the usual deletions or UPD, the probe detects absence of an unmethylated allele in PWS and absence of amore » methylated allele in AS. We have analyzed 21 nondeletion/nonUPD AS patients with this probe and found evidence for an imprinting mutation (absence of a methylated allele) in 3 patients. Southern blotting with methylation-sensitive enzymes using the exon {alpha} probe, like use of the PW71 probe, should detect abnormalities in all known PWS cases and in 3 of the 4 forms of AS: deletion, UPD and imprinting mutations. This analysis provides a valuable diagnostic approach for PWS and AS. In efforts to localize the imprinting mutations in AS, one patient was found with failure to inherit a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism near probe 189-1 (D15S13). Analysis of this locus in AS families and CEPH families demonstrates a polymorphism that impairs amplification and a different polymorphism involving absence of hybridization to the 189-1 probe. The functional significance, if any, of deletion of the 189-1 region is unclear.« less
  • Angelman syndrome (AS) is associated with a loss of maternal genetic information, which typically occurs as a result of a deletion at 15q11-q13 or paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. We report a patient with AS as a result of an unbalanced cryptic translocation whose breakpoint, at 15q11.2, falls within this region. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome, but without a detectable cytogenetic deletion, by using high-resolution G-banding. FISH detected a deletion of D15S11 (IR4-3R), with an intact GABRB3 locus. Subsequent studies of the proband`s mother and sister detected a cryptic reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 14 andmore » 15 with the breakpoint being between SNRPN and D15S10. The proband was found to have inherited an unbalanced form, being monosomic from 15pter through SNRPN and trisomic for 14pter to 14q11.2. DNA methylation studies showed that the proband had a paternal-only DNA methylation pattern at SNRPN, D15S63 (PW71), and ZNF127. The mother and unaffected sister, both having the balanced translocation, demonstrated normal DNA methylation patterns at all three loci. These data suggest that the gene for AS most likely lies proximal to D15S10, in contrast to the previously published position, although a less likely possibility is that the maternally inherited imprinting center acts in trans in the unaffected balanced translocation carrier sister. 27 refs., 6 figs.« less
  • Most sporadic cases of retinoblastoma, malignant eye tumor of children, may require the identification of a mutation of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1 gene) for precise genetic counseling. The authors established a mutation detection system of and screened for the RB1 gene mutation in 24 patients with retinoblastoma - 12 bilateral patients and 12 unilateral patients. Mutation analysis was performed by PCR-mediated SSCP analysis in the entire coding region and promoter region, as an initial screening method, followed by direct genomic sequencing. Possible oncogenic mutations were identified in 14 (58%) of 24 tumors, of which 6 were single base substitutions, 4more » were small deletions, 3 were small insertions, and 1 was a complex alteration due to deletion-insertion. A constitutional somatic mosaicism was suggested in one bilateral patient. A majority (57%) of mutations were found in E1A binding domains, and all were presumed to truncate the normal gene products. The mutation analysis presented here may provide a basis for the screening system of RB1 gene mutations in retinoblastoma patients. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • Recent studies have identified a new class of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) patients who have biparental inheritance, but neither the typical deletion nor uniparental disomy (UPD) or translocation. However, these patients have uniparental DNA methylation throughout 15q11-q13, and thus appear to have a mutation in the imprinting process for this region. Here we describe detailed clinical findings of five AS imprinting mutation patients (three families) and two PWS imprinting mutation patients (one new family). All these patients have essentially the classical clinical phenotype for the respective syndrome, except that the incidence of microcephaly is lower in imprintingmore » mutation AS patients than in deletion AS patients. Furthermore, imprinting mutation AS and PWS patients do not typically have hypopigmentation, which is commonly found in patients with the usual large deletion. Molecular diagnosis of these cases is initially achieved by DNA methylation analyses of the DN34/ZNF127, PW71 (D15S63), and SNRPN loci. The latter two probes have clear advantages in the simple molecular diagnostic analysis of PWS and AS patients with an imprinting mutation, as has been found for typical deletion or UPD PWS and AS cases. With the recent finding of inherited microdeletions in PWS and AS imprinting mutation families, our studies define a new class of these two syndromes. The clinical and molecular identification of these PWS and AS patients has important genetic counseling consequences. 49 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.« less
  • The D15S9 and D15S63 loci in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region on chromosome 15 are subject to parent-of-origin-specific DNA methylation. The authors have found two Prader-Willi syndrome families in which the patients carry a maternal methylation imprint on the paternal chromosome. In one of these families, the patients have a small deletion encompassing the gene for the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N, which maps 130 kb telomeric to D15S63. Furthermore, they have identified a pair of nondeletion Angelman syndrome sibs and two isolated Angelman syndrome patients who carry a paternal methylation imprint on the maternal chromosome. These Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromemore » patients may have a defect in the imprinting process in 15q11-13. The authors propose a model in which a cis-acting mutation prevents the resetting of the imprinting signal in the germ line and thus disturbs the expression of imprinted genes in this region. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less