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Title: Chlorine utilization during trihalomethane formation in the presence of ammonia and bromide

Abstract

The chlorination of humic substances in the presence of ammonia and bromide and the resultant formation of trihalomethanes (THM) are described. The presence of ammonia substantially reduced but did not eliminate THM production during the chlorination of waters containing humic substances. The presence of bromide ion in waters containing humic substances leads to increased THM formation, both in the presence and in the absence of ammonia. In waters containing ammonia, bromide, and humic substances, brominated haloforms can form upon chlorination. Brominated species comprise a larger portion of the total THMs at higher chlorine doses within the free chlorine region of the breakpoint curve than at lower dose in the subbreakpoint region. Although the THM formation reaction is slow and may not be complete even after 1 week of reaction time, the initial rate of formation is competitive with the relatively rapid reactions of bromide oxidation and chloramine formation. After free chlorine is converted to chloramines, THM production should theoretically cease. THMs will form in parallel with chloramine formation. This behavior has important implications for water utilities that use a raw water source containing low but significant levels of ammonia such as the Biscayne Aquifer, or are considering chloramine disinfection asmore » a THM control strategy.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Arizona, Tucson
OSTI Identifier:
5371240
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environ. Sci. Technol.; (United States); Journal Volume: 18:10
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; HUMIC ACIDS; WATER CHEMISTRY; ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; SYNTHESIS; AMMONIA; BROMIDES; CHLORINATION; POLLUTION SOURCES; WATER POLLUTION; WATER SUPPLY; BROMINE COMPOUNDS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CHEMISTRY; HALIDES; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; HALOGENATION; HYDRIDES; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; NITROGEN HYDRIDES; ORGANIC ACIDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; POLLUTION; 520200* - Environment, Aquatic- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Amy, G.L., Chadik, P.A., King, P.H., and Cooper, W.J. Chlorine utilization during trihalomethane formation in the presence of ammonia and bromide. United States: N. p., 1984. Web. doi:10.1021/es00128a011.
Amy, G.L., Chadik, P.A., King, P.H., & Cooper, W.J. Chlorine utilization during trihalomethane formation in the presence of ammonia and bromide. United States. doi:10.1021/es00128a011.
Amy, G.L., Chadik, P.A., King, P.H., and Cooper, W.J. 1984. "Chlorine utilization during trihalomethane formation in the presence of ammonia and bromide". United States. doi:10.1021/es00128a011.
@article{osti_5371240,
title = {Chlorine utilization during trihalomethane formation in the presence of ammonia and bromide},
author = {Amy, G.L. and Chadik, P.A. and King, P.H. and Cooper, W.J.},
abstractNote = {The chlorination of humic substances in the presence of ammonia and bromide and the resultant formation of trihalomethanes (THM) are described. The presence of ammonia substantially reduced but did not eliminate THM production during the chlorination of waters containing humic substances. The presence of bromide ion in waters containing humic substances leads to increased THM formation, both in the presence and in the absence of ammonia. In waters containing ammonia, bromide, and humic substances, brominated haloforms can form upon chlorination. Brominated species comprise a larger portion of the total THMs at higher chlorine doses within the free chlorine region of the breakpoint curve than at lower dose in the subbreakpoint region. Although the THM formation reaction is slow and may not be complete even after 1 week of reaction time, the initial rate of formation is competitive with the relatively rapid reactions of bromide oxidation and chloramine formation. After free chlorine is converted to chloramines, THM production should theoretically cease. THMs will form in parallel with chloramine formation. This behavior has important implications for water utilities that use a raw water source containing low but significant levels of ammonia such as the Biscayne Aquifer, or are considering chloramine disinfection as a THM control strategy.},
doi = {10.1021/es00128a011},
journal = {Environ. Sci. Technol.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 18:10,
place = {United States},
year = 1984,
month =
}
  • A study was conducted to compare the potential for total trihalomethane (TTHM) formation using conventional versus targeted chlorination. Results indicate that targeted chlorination significantly decreases TTHM formation when compared to conventional chlorination in cooling waters where chlorine is applied for biofouling control. Bromoform was the predominant THM formed in all cases, owing to the oxidation of naturally occurring bromide in seawater to bromine when chlorinated, with subsequent conversion to bromoform when it reacted with organic precursors. Introduction of additional chlorine to all samples yielded considerable TTHMs after a 7-day incubation.
  • Reductive coupling of ketones mediated by MeMgBr, vanadium, and O{sub 2} is described. Multiple examples of this reaction are discussed. Both a C-C bond formation product and an alcohol product are formed.
  • A study was made to obtain a better understanding of the manner in which preozonation affects trihalomethane (THM) formation with respect to humic acid, citric acid, and 11 aromatic compounds which were components of humic acid, all in dilute aqueous medium. Ozonation before chlorination is able to not only decrease, but also increase the concentrations of THM precursors. The compounds which are inherently high THM precursors, such as resorcinol, aniline, salicylaldehyde, phenol, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, are controlled with respect to the increase in the amount of ozone consumed, but the compounds which have essentially no or a low potential formore » chloroform formation, such as hydroquinone, salicylic acid, methoxybenzene, benzaldehyde, and benzoic acid, produce their maximum THM levels at a certain value of ozone consumed. When 1 mg of organic carbon consumes more than 8 mg of ozone, THM formation from the tested aromatic compounds is depressed by ozone. Aliphatic carbonyl compounds which are the products resulting from the ozonation of aromatic compounds are not significant THM precursors. The preozonation of humic acid is not as effective in reducing its THM formation potential (THMFP) as when simple aromatic compounds are treated. However, the organic materials in the effluent from a biological treatment process usually have a high THMFP, in comparison with organic compounds which are contained in raw wastes. Therefore, there is a limitation in the effectiveness of utilizing biological treatment to remove the precursors of THM.« less
  • Four different sources of humic substances were studied to determine the effects of ozonation on molecular weight distributions, based on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Solutions of two soil-derived fulvic acids and a one soil-derived humic acid, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM) associated with a natural water source were studied. Both gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and ultrafiltration (UF) were employed to define apparent molecular weight (AMW). Applied ozone doses ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 mg O{sub 3}/mg DOC. Overall samples of untreated and ozonated waters, as well as individual molecular weight fractions, were characterizedmore » according to DOC, uv absorbance, and THMFP. Ozonation resulted in a significant disappearance of higher AMW material with a corresponding increase in lower AMW material. Although little overall reduction in DOC concentration was observed, significant overall reductions in UV absorbance and THMFP levels were observed.« less