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Title: Technology of mirror machines: LLL facilities for magnetic mirror fusion experiments

Abstract

Significant progress in plasma confinement and temperature has been achieved in the 2XIIB facility at Livermore. These encouraging results, and their theoretical corroboration, have provided a firm basis for the design of a new generation of magnetic mirror experiments, adding support to the mirror concept of a fusion reactor. Two new mirror experiments have been proposed to succeed the currently operating 2XIIB facility. The first of these called TMX (Tandem Mirror Experiment) has been approved and is currently under construction. TMX is designed to utilize the intrinsic positive plasma potential of two strong, and relatively small, minimum B mirror cells to enhance the confinement of a much larger, magnetically weaker, centrally-located mirror cell. The second facility, MFTF (Mirror Fusion Test Facility), is currently in preliminary design with line item approval anticipated for FY 78. MFTF is designed primarily to exploit the experimental and theoretical results derived from 2XIIB. Beyond that, MFTF will develop the technology for the transition from the present small mirror experiments to large steady-state devices such as the mirror FERF/FTR. The sheer magnitude of the plasma volume, magnetic field, neutral beam power, and vacuum pumping capacity, particularly in the case of MFTF, has placed new and excitingmore » demands on engineering technology. An engineering overview of MFTF, TMX, and associated MFE activities at Livermore will be presented.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.
OSTI Identifier:
5366972
Report Number(s):
UCRL-79605; CONF-771029-9
TRN: 78-003059
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 7. symposium on fusion research project, Knoxville, TN, USA, 25 Oct 1977
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; MAGNETIC MIRROR TYPE REACTORS; REVIEWS; 2X DEVICES; ENGINEERING; MFTF DEVICES; PLANNING; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; TMX DEVICES; DOCUMENT TYPES; MAGNETIC MIRRORS; OPEN PLASMA DEVICES; THERMONUCLEAR DEVICES; THERMONUCLEAR REACTORS; 700200* - Fusion Energy- Fusion Power Plant Technology

Citation Formats

Batzer, T.H.. Technology of mirror machines: LLL facilities for magnetic mirror fusion experiments. United States: N. p., 1977. Web.
Batzer, T.H.. Technology of mirror machines: LLL facilities for magnetic mirror fusion experiments. United States.
Batzer, T.H.. 1977. "Technology of mirror machines: LLL facilities for magnetic mirror fusion experiments". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5366972.
@article{osti_5366972,
title = {Technology of mirror machines: LLL facilities for magnetic mirror fusion experiments},
author = {Batzer, T.H.},
abstractNote = {Significant progress in plasma confinement and temperature has been achieved in the 2XIIB facility at Livermore. These encouraging results, and their theoretical corroboration, have provided a firm basis for the design of a new generation of magnetic mirror experiments, adding support to the mirror concept of a fusion reactor. Two new mirror experiments have been proposed to succeed the currently operating 2XIIB facility. The first of these called TMX (Tandem Mirror Experiment) has been approved and is currently under construction. TMX is designed to utilize the intrinsic positive plasma potential of two strong, and relatively small, minimum B mirror cells to enhance the confinement of a much larger, magnetically weaker, centrally-located mirror cell. The second facility, MFTF (Mirror Fusion Test Facility), is currently in preliminary design with line item approval anticipated for FY 78. MFTF is designed primarily to exploit the experimental and theoretical results derived from 2XIIB. Beyond that, MFTF will develop the technology for the transition from the present small mirror experiments to large steady-state devices such as the mirror FERF/FTR. The sheer magnitude of the plasma volume, magnetic field, neutral beam power, and vacuum pumping capacity, particularly in the case of MFTF, has placed new and exciting demands on engineering technology. An engineering overview of MFTF, TMX, and associated MFE activities at Livermore will be presented.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1977,
month = 9
}

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  • The technical issues and requirements of experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology (FNT) are investigated. The nuclear subsystems addressed are: a) blanket; b) radiation shield; c) tritium processing system; and d) plasma interactive components. Emphasis is placed on the important and complex development problems of the blanket. A technical planning process for FNT is developed and applied, including four major elements: 1) characterization of issues; 2) quantification of testing requirements; 3) evaluation of facilities; and 4) development of a test plan to identify the role, timing, characteristics and costs of major experiments and facilities.
  • A process has been developed and applied to the technical planning of experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology. The process involves: (1) characterization of issues; (2) quantification of testing requirements; (3) evaluation of facilities; and (4) development of a test plant to identify the role, timing, characteristics, and costs of major experiments and facilities. The nuclear subsystems addressed are: (1) blanket, including the first wall; (b) radiation shield; (c) tritium processing system; and (d) plasma interactive components. Particular emphasis has been placed on the complex technical issues and development problems of the blanket.
  • Technology requirements for mirror hybrid reactors are discussed. The required 120-keV neutral beams can use positive ions. The magnetic fields are 8 T or under and can use NbTi superconductors. The value of Q (where Q is the ratio of fusion power to injection power) should be in the range of 1 to 2 for economic reasons relating to the cost of recirculating power. The wall loading of 14-MeV neutrons should be in the range of 1 to 2 MW/m/sup 2/ for economic reasons. Five-times higher wall loading will likely be needed if fusion reactors are to be economical. Themore » magnetic mirror experiments 2XIIB, TMX, and MFTF are described.« less
  • A quasilinear model for the evolution of the 2XIIB mirror experiment is presented and shown to reproduce the time evolution of the experiment. From quasilinear theory it follows that the energy lifetime is the Spitzer electron drag time for T/sub e/ approximately less than 0.1T/sub i/. By computing the stability boundary of the DCLC mode, with warm plasma stabilization, the electron temperature is predicted as a function of radial scale length. In addition, the effect of finite length corrections to the Alfven cyclotron mode is assessed.
  • A perturbation method is developed to find solutions of sloshing ion distributions. This method uses an expansion in the ratio of electrostatic potential to average ion energy to simplify the bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation. Finite element techniques, which provide rapid numerical solutions for parametric studies of sloshing ions, are used to derive the zeroth-order angular and velocity equations. The first-order two-dimensional equation was also expanded into finite element ''hat functions''. Application of Galerkin's method gives a linear system of equations where all matrix and source elements are calculated analytically. The density ratio and the potential profiles as functions of axial distancemore » are computed. There is excellent agreement with results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code with as much as 500 times and 50 times less Cray-1 computer time for the zeroth- and the first-order solutions, respectively.« less