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Title: High-concentration photovoltaic module design

Abstract

Over the past 3 years, Black and Veatch has been leading a team in the ongoing design of a high-concentration, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) module for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The current design consists of a deep-drawn aluminized steel housing containing 48 cell packages in a 4-row by 12-column matrix. Each cell package includes an anodized aluminum secondary optical element, a 27.5% efficient Stanford University/EPRI 500X concentration point contact silicon PV cell, an alumina substrate, and a copper heat spreader. Developmental efforts underway for a comolded glass/polymer Fresnel lens parquet indicate the potential for a substantial decrease in molding time and, thereby, cost, in comparison to more conventional compression molding of acrylic lenses. Further development is necessary to achieve comparable optical performance of the lens. Current activities have included the development of PVOPTICS, a Monte Carlo computer code particularly suited to the module optical design. The module is projected to produce 287 watts at an efficiency of 22%. The module cost, at large production rates, is estimated to be $275 ($0.96 per watt).

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5294369
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 5294369; Legacy ID: TI86920455
Report Number(s):
EPRI-AP-4752
ON: TI86920455
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; CONCENTRATOR SOLAR CELLS; DESIGN; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COST ESTIMATION; FRESNEL LENS; HEAT SINKS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PERFORMANCE TESTING; SILICON SOLAR CELLS; THERMAL ANALYSIS; DIRECT ENERGY CONVERTERS; EQUIPMENT; LENSES; PHOTOELECTRIC CELLS; PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS; SIMULATION; SINKS; SOLAR CELLS; SOLAR EQUIPMENT; TESTING 140501* -- Solar Energy Conversion-- Photovoltaic Conversion

Citation Formats

Levy, S.L., and Stoddard, L.E. High-concentration photovoltaic module design. United States: N. p., 1986. Web.
Levy, S.L., & Stoddard, L.E. High-concentration photovoltaic module design. United States.
Levy, S.L., and Stoddard, L.E. Fri . "High-concentration photovoltaic module design". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5294369,
title = {High-concentration photovoltaic module design},
author = {Levy, S.L. and Stoddard, L.E.},
abstractNote = {Over the past 3 years, Black and Veatch has been leading a team in the ongoing design of a high-concentration, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) module for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The current design consists of a deep-drawn aluminized steel housing containing 48 cell packages in a 4-row by 12-column matrix. Each cell package includes an anodized aluminum secondary optical element, a 27.5% efficient Stanford University/EPRI 500X concentration point contact silicon PV cell, an alumina substrate, and a copper heat spreader. Developmental efforts underway for a comolded glass/polymer Fresnel lens parquet indicate the potential for a substantial decrease in molding time and, thereby, cost, in comparison to more conventional compression molding of acrylic lenses. Further development is necessary to achieve comparable optical performance of the lens. Current activities have included the development of PVOPTICS, a Monte Carlo computer code particularly suited to the module optical design. The module is projected to produce 287 watts at an efficiency of 22%. The module cost, at large production rates, is estimated to be $275 ($0.96 per watt).},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 1986},
month = {Fri Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 1986}
}

Technical Report:
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  • By the early 1980s, Stanford University under contract with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) produced a point-contact photovoltaic cell that has established a number of world record achievements. In 1984 a conceptual design was proposed for a cell package, module, and array system for use in utility-scale commercial power production. Since 1984, EPRI has moved the laboratory concept forward toward commercial application. More than 1500 high concentration cells have been produced in the evolutionary process. Approximately 700 of those cells have been or are presently being installed in fully operational modules for field tests. Over 130 modules have beenmore » constructed and are in field testing for electrical, thermal or weathering tests. Two full-sized array structures (each containing 60 instrumented ``thermal`` modules) have been constructed and continue to undergo field testing for alignment, performance, and reliability. This two volume report reviews the key challenges that have confronted the development of a commercial system and describes the program response to those challenges. The intent is to inform interested readers -- utilities, commercializers, researchers -- as to the primary developments and test results that have been achieved. A considerable body of ``raw data`` has been included so that interested researchers can draw their own conclusions without needing to refer to the source documents. Volume 1 discusses design fabrication and performance of the cell; design, construction and testing of the cell package and the design, fabrication and testing of the optical system. Volume 2 reviews the module and array programs, discusses other system issues and presents a short review of the technology`s open issues.« less
  • The objectives were to design, manufacture, and test an advanced photovoltaic module employing high-concentration (400 suns) Fresnel lenses, high efficiency AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells, and jet-impingement cell cooling. The prototype module produced approximately 100 W of dc power using 12 organometallic-vapor phase epitaxial (OM-VPE) cells (21 to 23% efficiency at 400 suns, 50/sup 0/C) and 12 acrylic lenses and was designed for thermal energy recovery. The maximum module efficiency measured in Palo Alto, CA, was 17.1%, compared to the 14% design goal. This performance was at a 50/sup 0/C coolant inlet temperature and reflected deduction of coolant pumping power. The modulemore » efficiency is 17.5% when corrected to NOCT conditions (20/sup 0/C coolant inlet temperature). Approximately 40 to 50% of the direct normal incident energy was determined to be available for recovery from the module coolant. The design and performance of a 3.2 kW/sub p/ photovoltaic array employing a further improved version of the module is also presented.« less
  • During the 1970s and early 1980s a promising solar cell technology evolved in the laboratory at Stanford University. The work produced a point-contact photovoltaic cell that has established a number of world record achievements. Since 1984, the Electric Power Research Institute has moved the laboratory concept forward commercial application. The design and processing of the cell has progressed from laboratory device research toward a mass-produced commodity, with concurrent reduction in cost and improvement in uniformity. An extension test program to determine module and array performance and reliability has been put in place. More than 1500 high concentration cells have beenmore » produced in the evolutionary process. Approximately 700 of those cells have been or are presently being installed in fully operational modules for field tests. Over 130 modules have been constructed and are in field testing for electrical, thermal or weathering tests. Two full-sized array structures (each containing 60 instrumented ``thermal`` modules) have been constructed and continue to undergo field testing for alignment, performance, and reliability. This two volume report reviews the activities that have occurred in this technology since the issue of the early conceptual design study. The intent is to inform interested readers -- utilities, commercializers, researchers -- as to the primary developments and test results that have been achieved. A considerable body of of ``raw data`` has been included so that interested researchers can draw their own conclusions. Volume 1 discusses design and fabrication of the cell; performance of the cell; design, construction and testing of the cell package and the design, fabrication and testing of the optical system. Volume 2 reviews the module and array programs, discusses other system issues and presents a short review of the technology`s open issues.« less