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Title: New proppant for deep hydraulic fracturing

Abstract

Much work has been done in the development and evaluation of various materials for use as proppants for hydraulic fracturing. Sand is most often used as a frac proppant in shallow wells. Deep wells having high closure stresses require a proppant such as sintered bauxite which will not crush under such adverse conditions. Proppants such as ceramic and zirconium oxide beads and resin coated sand have been developed for deep hydraulic fracturing; however, use of these materials has been limited. A new frac proppant has been developed which exhibits the properties necessary for use in deep hydraulic fracturing. This frac proppant is produced by precuring a specially modified phenol-formaldehyde resin onto sand. The new frac proppant maintains conductivity and resists crushing, similar to that of sintered bauxite at high closure stress. 11 references.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5282643
Report Number(s):
CONF-8205280-
Journal ID: CODEN: SEAPA
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Soc. Pet. Eng. AIME, Pap.; (United States); Journal Volume: SPE-10889; Conference: SPE of AIME Rocky Mountain regular meeting, Billings, MT, USA, 19 May 1982
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; HYDRAULIC FRACTURING; PROPPING AGENTS; OIL WELLS; BAUXITE; ENHANCED RECOVERY; PETROLEUM; SAND; ALUMINIUM ORES; COMMINUTION; ENERGY SOURCES; FOSSIL FUELS; FRACTURING; FUELS; ORES; RECOVERY; WELLS 020300* -- Petroleum-- Drilling & Production

Citation Formats

Underdown, D.R., and Das, K.. New proppant for deep hydraulic fracturing. United States: N. p., 1982. Web.
Underdown, D.R., & Das, K.. New proppant for deep hydraulic fracturing. United States.
Underdown, D.R., and Das, K.. 1982. "New proppant for deep hydraulic fracturing". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5282643,
title = {New proppant for deep hydraulic fracturing},
author = {Underdown, D.R. and Das, K.},
abstractNote = {Much work has been done in the development and evaluation of various materials for use as proppants for hydraulic fracturing. Sand is most often used as a frac proppant in shallow wells. Deep wells having high closure stresses require a proppant such as sintered bauxite which will not crush under such adverse conditions. Proppants such as ceramic and zirconium oxide beads and resin coated sand have been developed for deep hydraulic fracturing; however, use of these materials has been limited. A new frac proppant has been developed which exhibits the properties necessary for use in deep hydraulic fracturing. This frac proppant is produced by precuring a specially modified phenol-formaldehyde resin onto sand. The new frac proppant maintains conductivity and resists crushing, similar to that of sintered bauxite at high closure stress. 11 references.},
doi = {},
journal = {Soc. Pet. Eng. AIME, Pap.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = SPE-10889,
place = {United States},
year = 1982,
month = 1
}

Conference:
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  • Much work has focused on developing and evaluating various materials for use as proppants for hydraulic fracturing. Sand is used most often as a fracturing proppant in shallow wells. Deep wells with high closure stresses require a proppant, such as sintered bauxite, that will not crush under adverse conditions. Ceramic and zirconium oxide beads and resin-coated sand proppants also have been developed for deep hydraulic fracturing. A new fracturing proppant has been developed that exhibits the properties necessary for use in deep hydraulic fracturing. This proppant is produced by precuring a specially modified phenolformaldehyde resin onto sand. The new proppantmore » maintains conductivity and resists crushing much better than does sand. The new proppant was compared to intermediate-density sintered bauxitic proppants and cured-in-place proppants and the tests were confirmed by an independent laboratory.« less
  • A new proppant now available for use has properties that make it an ideal replacement for sand and glass beads in formations where there is high closure stress or the need for sand control. The proppant, called super sand, is made by coating ordinary frac sand with a resin that is dry and hard at ordinary temperatures. It mixes readily with frac fluids and pumps easily. Inside the fracture, it softens to a glassy state from the reservoir temperature or added heat, then cures and hardens. It fills the fracture with a strong, cohesive rock that retains high permeability atmore » stresses up to 100,000 psi. Laboratory tests and field experience indicate super sand has excellent long-term stability since the resin coating is inert to the most common oil-field chemicals, acids, and high temperature water.« less
  • Hydraulic fracturing model using various sets of fracture flow/geometry equations are available in the industry. The majority of these models assume a constant fracture height selected at the start of the design, and simulate two-dimensional fracture geometry (width and length) and one dimensional fluid flow in both the fracture and the formation. The two-dimensional fracture geometry simulation can lead to optimistic estimates of fracture lengths and the one-dimensional flow may not allow adequate representation of proppant transport and fluid loss. Highly sophisticated hydraulic fracturing models are available that simulate three-dimensional fracture height and two-dimensional fluid flow throughout the entire fracturemore » process. These models are versatile and are recommended for highly complex, layered reservoirs where rock material properties, in-situ stress distribution, and flow properties are variable at the wellbore and also throughout the reservoir. compensated for two-dimensional fluid flow which« less
  • Equipment has been constructed to give a realistic laboratory simulation of the in-situ conditions during and after a hydraulic fracturing treatment of tight gas reservoirs. The equipment measures the permeability of both the 'natural' core material and the proppant pack with gas under in-situ conditions before and after exposure to fracturing fluid. The rate of clean-up of the proppant pack and the core sample is measured after the fracturing fluid has broken. Various fracturing fluids commercially available from the major service companies have been evaluated. Little damage to the proppant/rock interface has been measured but massive damage to the proppantmore » pack was observed. The damage is caused by frac fluid residue, filter cake and non-Darcy flow effects. This damage is observed only in the experiments described above and has not been reported in other, less sophisticated laboratory simulations of the fracturing process. The least damaging of the commercially available products tested has been identified. procedures have been developed for placing ''over-designed'' (or increased conductivity) proppant packs during field hydraulic fracturing treatments. This has resulted in large increases in well productivity during field treatment, and is particularly marked during the early (transient) production phase. It is concluded that there is scope for the development of less damaging fracturing fluids in order to optimise the economics.« less
  • A new fracturing process using a high-strength bauxite as the proppant has been developed which generates long-lasting, high-conductivity fractures in deep, hard, high-stress formations. No unusual difficulties have been experienced in handling and pumping the proppant. Good production increases have been obtained in most of the wells treated with the new process. The process is particularly applicable to deep reservoirs. Detailed economic analyses, made with a reservoir simulator and using reservoir and economic parameters for a deep, tight, E. Texas area gas well, show that large economic benefits can be expected from use of the process.