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Title: Use of corn-distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture. Semi-annual technical progress report

Abstract

It appears reasonable that potential exists for using corn distiller's solubles for the controlled production of aquatic organisms (aquaculture). Results of initial laboratory studies which have focused on assessing the short-term effects of various concentrations of corn distiller's solubles on water quality and aquatic organisms (fish, macrocrustaceans, microcrustaceans, and algae) are described. These results, coupled with results of studies currently in progress, will be used to identify a suitable quantity of corn distiller's solubles for daily application to the earthen ponds that will be used in the field production trials.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale (USA). Fisheries Research Lab.
OSTI Identifier:
5250692
Report Number(s):
DOE/R5/10295-1
ON: DE82009801
DOE Contract Number:
FG02-81R510295
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; AQUACULTURE; ANIMAL FEEDS; WATER QUALITY; ETHANOL PLANTS; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; STILLAGE; ALGAE; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; CRUSTACEANS; FISHES; MAIZE; PONDS; ANIMALS; ARTHROPODS; CEREALS; ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY; FOOD; GRAMINEAE; GRASS; INDUSTRIAL PLANTS; INVERTEBRATES; ORGANIC WASTES; PLANTS; SURFACE WATERS; VERTEBRATES; WASTES; 140504* - Solar Energy Conversion- Biomass Production & Conversion- (-1989); 090222 - Alcohol Fuels- Preparation from Wastes or Biomass- (1976-1989)

Citation Formats

Kohler, C.C., and Lewis, W.M. Use of corn-distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture. Semi-annual technical progress report. United States: N. p., 1982. Web.
Kohler, C.C., & Lewis, W.M. Use of corn-distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture. Semi-annual technical progress report. United States.
Kohler, C.C., and Lewis, W.M. Fri . "Use of corn-distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture. Semi-annual technical progress report". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5250692,
title = {Use of corn-distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture. Semi-annual technical progress report},
author = {Kohler, C.C. and Lewis, W.M.},
abstractNote = {It appears reasonable that potential exists for using corn distiller's solubles for the controlled production of aquatic organisms (aquaculture). Results of initial laboratory studies which have focused on assessing the short-term effects of various concentrations of corn distiller's solubles on water quality and aquatic organisms (fish, macrocrustaceans, microcrustaceans, and algae) are described. These results, coupled with results of studies currently in progress, will be used to identify a suitable quantity of corn distiller's solubles for daily application to the earthen ponds that will be used in the field production trials.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 12 00:00:00 EST 1982},
month = {Fri Mar 12 00:00:00 EST 1982}
}

Technical Report:
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  • Wet stillage can economically be separated into two fractions: distiller's grain and distiller's solubles. Wet corn distiller's grain has shown potential as a feed supplement for ruminants, swine, and poultry. However, the soluble fraction (with suspended particles) is of little food value to terrestrial animals because of its high water content; it is not generally economically feasible to concentrate it further. The purpose of this project is to determine if the soluble by-product could potentially be used as a food source in an aquatic environment where its high water content would not necessarily pose an impediment. Studies have shown thatmore » corn distiller's solubles are not highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that it be administered to ponds at rates less than 2000 ppM on a daily basis. Golden shiners were observed to actively consume the particulates of the corn distiller's solubles. Direct consumption of the particulates by fish makes the use of corn distiller's solubles in aquaculture much more attractive than if the by-product only serves to increase pond fertility. Despite the minimum amount of food material added to the ponds, production of shrimp and fish was favorable over the 4 month growing periods. Golden shiners reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to 130 kg ha/sup -1/. Monoculture of shrimp at higher densities (3000 to 5000 shrimp stocked per pond versus 2000 in 1982) resulted in an average production equivalent to approximately 228 kg ha/sup -1/, with individual shrimp averaging 10.5 g. Based on estimated wholesale prices of $10.00 and $7.75 per kilogram for frozen shrimp and live fish, respectively, the gross profit margin would have exceeded $2000 ha/sup -1/ both years. 25 references, 13 figures, 13 tables.« less
  • This project seeks to develop and demonstrate an improved reactor for the production of ethanol from starch and ligno-cellulosic streams. Bio-Process Innovations holds a patent on this reactor technology, and is directing the project. A Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) is being built on a pilot plant scale for testing at a small Iowa ethanol plant (Permeate Refining) while bench scale tests on the reactor system are being performed at Purdue University. The CSRS unit combines several operations within the confines of the reactor vessel- (1) complex carbohydrates are reduced to simple sugars by enzymatic breakdown, (2) sugars are convertedmore » to ethanol by yeast or bacteria, and (3) the ethanol is separated by a stripping gas stream. The ethanol is removed from the stripping gas in an absorber, and then taken to an extractive distillation column. This unit should allow concentrated feeds to be converted to ethanol, and the use of bottoms recycle will be extensively tested to establish the limits of minimizing net bottoms water production leaving the plant. Lab scale tests raw starch conversion in a 4-liter CSRS unit have been completed, a flocculating yeast strain has been selected with some ongoing characterizations studies being performed, a xylose fermenting yeast strain has been selected from among five or six best performing strains. Ongoing studies yet to be completed include testing of the effects of bottoms water recirculation on fermentation performance, testing of raw starch degrading enzymes as produced by various strains of Aspergillus, lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol, and molasses conversion to ethanol.« less
  • A pilot aquaculture facility utilizing heated river water from condenser cooling (Mercer Generating Station, Trenton, New Jersey) is being used to culture the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) during the warmer months of the year and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) during the colder months. Laboratory tests are also being conducted at Rutgers University to develop shrimp feeds with supplemented amino acids in order to reduce feed costs. Most of the work during the first six months of the proof-of-concept phase of the Mercer Aquaculture Project has been concerned with facility design, groundwater well construction and trialsmore » of the groundwater on trout.« less
  • The principal objective is to evaluate, at proof-of-concept scale, the potential of intensive aquaculture operations using power plant thermal discharges to enhance productivity. The field experiments involve the rearing of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and American eel (Anguilla rostrata) for successive periods (semi-annual) in accordance with the temperature of the thermal effluents. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are also being tested in smaller, laboratory size culture systems. The above mentioned species were selected because of their economic importance. They will be evaluated for food quality and marketability with the cooperation ofmore » potential commercial users. Aquaculture facilities were constructed at a steam electric generating plant for studies determining use for waste heat released into condenser cooling water. Growth rates, food conversion ratios, disease problems and mortality rates are being studied in the project. (Color illustrations reproduced in black and white) (Portions of this document are not fully legible)« less
  • This study addresses two issues: (1) data and information essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than estimates based specifically on activities and practices in the principal domestic corn production and milling region -- the upper Midwest.