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Title: Evolution of salt structures, East Texas Diapir Province, Part 2: patterns and rates of Halokinesis

Abstract

The effects of salt mobilization on Aptian and younger (post-112 Ma) strata in the East Texas basin can be used to illustrate patterns of dome growth through time, and to estimate rates and amounts of salt movement. Pre-Aptian domes grew in three areas around the margin of the diapir province, apparently in pre-Aptian depocenters. Maximum dome growth along the basin axis coincided with maximum regional sedimentation there during the middle Cretaceous (Aptian, Albian, and Cenomanian). In the Late Cretaceous the sites of maximum diapirism migrated to the periphery of the diapir province. Diapirism began after pillows were erosionally breached, leading to salt extrusion and formation of peripheral sinks. The duration of pillow and diapir stages of growth was subequal, ranging from 10 to 30 Ma. Post-diapiric stage of growth continued for more than 112 Ma in some cases. Diapirs grew fastest in the Early Cretaceous, when peak growth rates ranged from 150 to 530 m/Ma (490 to 1,740 ft/Ma), declining in the Early Tertiary to 10 to 60 m/Ma (30 to 200 ft/Ma). Assuming steady-state conditions over periods of 1 to 17 Ma, strain rates for the rise of the East Texas diapirs averaged 6.7 X 10/sup -16//sec; peak grossmore » rate of growth averaged 2.3 X 10/sup -15//sec, similar to slow orogenic rates. The evolution of East Texas salt domes essentially ended in the early Tertiary with uplift rates less than 30 m/ Ma (100 ft/Ma).« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Bureau of Economic Geology, The Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX
OSTI Identifier:
5204945
DOE Contract Number:
AC97-80ET46617
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AAPG Bull.; (United States); Journal Volume: 67:8
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; SALT DEPOSITS; DIAGENESIS; TEXAS; NATURAL GAS DEPOSITS; PETROLEUM DEPOSITS; CRETACEOUS PERIOD; GROUND UPLIFT; PETROLEUM GEOLOGY; ROCK MECHANICS; SEDIMENTARY BASINS; SEDIMENTATION; STRAIN RATE; TERTIARY PERIOD; CENOZOIC ERA; FEDERAL REGION VI; GEOLOGIC AGES; GEOLOGIC DEPOSITS; GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES; GEOLOGY; MECHANICS; MESOZOIC ERA; MINERAL RESOURCES; NORTH AMERICA; RESOURCES; USA; 020200* - Petroleum- Reserves, Geology, & Exploration; 030200 - Natural Gas- Reserves, Geology, & Exploration

Citation Formats

Seni, S.J., and Jackson, M.P.A. Evolution of salt structures, East Texas Diapir Province, Part 2: patterns and rates of Halokinesis. United States: N. p., 1983. Web.
Seni, S.J., & Jackson, M.P.A. Evolution of salt structures, East Texas Diapir Province, Part 2: patterns and rates of Halokinesis. United States.
Seni, S.J., and Jackson, M.P.A. 1983. "Evolution of salt structures, East Texas Diapir Province, Part 2: patterns and rates of Halokinesis". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5204945,
title = {Evolution of salt structures, East Texas Diapir Province, Part 2: patterns and rates of Halokinesis},
author = {Seni, S.J. and Jackson, M.P.A.},
abstractNote = {The effects of salt mobilization on Aptian and younger (post-112 Ma) strata in the East Texas basin can be used to illustrate patterns of dome growth through time, and to estimate rates and amounts of salt movement. Pre-Aptian domes grew in three areas around the margin of the diapir province, apparently in pre-Aptian depocenters. Maximum dome growth along the basin axis coincided with maximum regional sedimentation there during the middle Cretaceous (Aptian, Albian, and Cenomanian). In the Late Cretaceous the sites of maximum diapirism migrated to the periphery of the diapir province. Diapirism began after pillows were erosionally breached, leading to salt extrusion and formation of peripheral sinks. The duration of pillow and diapir stages of growth was subequal, ranging from 10 to 30 Ma. Post-diapiric stage of growth continued for more than 112 Ma in some cases. Diapirs grew fastest in the Early Cretaceous, when peak growth rates ranged from 150 to 530 m/Ma (490 to 1,740 ft/Ma), declining in the Early Tertiary to 10 to 60 m/Ma (30 to 200 ft/Ma). Assuming steady-state conditions over periods of 1 to 17 Ma, strain rates for the rise of the East Texas diapirs averaged 6.7 X 10/sup -16//sec; peak gross rate of growth averaged 2.3 X 10/sup -15//sec, similar to slow orogenic rates. The evolution of East Texas salt domes essentially ended in the early Tertiary with uplift rates less than 30 m/ Ma (100 ft/Ma).},
doi = {},
journal = {AAPG Bull.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 67:8,
place = {United States},
year = 1983,
month = 8
}
  • The effects of salt mobilization on Aptian and younger (post-112 Ma) strata in the East Texas basin can be used to illustrate patterns of dome growth through time, and to estimate rates and amounts of salt movement. Pre-Aptian domes grew in three areas around the margin of the diapir province, apparently in pre-Aptian depocenters. Maximum dome growth along the basin axis coincide with maximum regional sedimentation there during the middle Cretaceous (Aptian, Albian, and Cenomanian). In the Late Cretaceous the sites of maximum diapirism migrated to the periphery of the diapir province. Diapirism began after pillows were erosionally breached, leadingmore » to salt extrusion and formation of peripheral sinks. The duration of pillow and diapir stages of growth was subequal, ranging from 10 to 30 Ma. Post-diapiric stage of growth continued for more than 112 Ma in some cases. Diapirs grew fastest in the Early Cretaceous, when peak growth rates ranged from 150 to 530 m/Ma (490 to 1740 ft/Ma), declining in the Early Tertiary to 10 to 60 m/Ma (30 to 200 ft/Ma). Assuming steady-state conditions over periods of 1 to 17 Ma, strain rates for the rise of the East Texas diapirs averaged 6.7 X 10/sup -16/ sec;peak gross rate of growth averaged 2.3 X 10/sup -15/ sec, similar to slow orogenic rates. The evolution of East Texas salt domes essentially ended in the early Tertiary with uplift rates less than 30 m/Ma (100 ft/Ma).« less
  • Post-Aptian (post-112 Ma) strata in the East Texas basin were strongly influenced by halokinesis and therefore record the evolution of associated salt structures. Dome-induced changes in patterns of sandstone distribution, depositional facies, and reef growth indicate that thickness variations in strata surrounding domes were caused by syndepositional processes rather than by tectonic distortion. Salt domes in the East Texas basin exhibit three stages of growth: pillow, diapir, and post-diapir, each of which affected surrounding strata differently. Pillow growth caused broad uplift of strata over the crest of the pillows; the resulting topographic swell influenced depositional trends and was susceptible tomore » erosion. Fluvial channel systems bypassed pillow crests and stacked vertically in primary peripheral sinks on the updip flanks of the pillows. Diapir growth was characterized by expanded sections of shelf and deltaic strata in secondary peripheral sinks around the diapirs. Lower Cretaceous reefs on topographic saddles between secondary peripheral sinks now host major oil production at Fairway field. Post-diapir crestal uplifts and peripheral subsidence affected smaller areas than did equivalent processes during pillow or diapir stages. Documented facies variations over and around domes at different stages of growth enable prediction of subtle facies-controlled hydrocarbon traps. Facies-controlled traps are likely to be the only undiscovered ones remaining in mature petroliferous basins such as the East Texas basin.« less
  • Post-Aptian (post-112Ma) strata in the East Texas basin were strongly influenced by halokinesis and therefore record the evolution of associated salt structures. Domeinduced changes in patterns of sandstone distribution, depositional facies, and reef growth indicate that thickness variations in strata surrounding domes were caused by syndepositional processes rather than by tectonic distortion. Salt domes in the East Texas basin exhibit three stages of growth: pillow, diapir, and post-diapir, each of which affected surrounding strata differently. Pillow growth caused broad uplift of strata over the crest of the pillows; the resulting topographic swell influenced depositional trends and was susceptible to erosion.more » Fluvial channel systems bypassed pillow crests and stacked vertically in primary peripheral sinks on the updip flanks of the pillows. Diapir growth was characterized by expanded sections of shelf and deltaic strata in secondary peripheral sinks around the diapirs. Lower Cretaceous reefs on topographic saddles between secondary peripheral sinks now host major oil production at Fairway field. Post-diapir crestal uplifts and peripheral subsidence affected smaller areas than did equivalent processes during pillow or diapir stages. Documented facies variations over and around domes at different stages of growth enable prediction of subtle facies-controlled hydrocarbon traps. Facies-controlled traps are likely to be the only undiscovered ones remaining in mature petroliferous basins such as the East Texas basin.« less
  • The top of mushroom-shaped Oakwood salt dome is ca 210 m (700 ft) beneath the boundary of Freestone and Leon counties near the southwestern end of the East Texas Basin. The dome is surrounded by Jurassic, Cretaceous, and lower Tertiary marine and nonmarine strata. A salt pillow initially formed in Late Jurassic Smackover time, when faulting contributed to uneven sediment loading of the Louann Salt. The dome began to grow vertically into a diapiric configuration during the deposition of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clastics (Bossier-Travis Peak formations) and probably remained near the depositional surface during most of its growth. The estimatedmore » average vertical rise of the top of salt at Oakwood salt dome shows a general decrease over time, from ca 0.07 mm/yr (230 ft/m.y.) during Early Cretaceous time to 0.002 mm/yr (5 ft/m.y.) since early Tertiary (Reklaw) time. Hydrocarbons are produced from Woodbine sediments beneath the dome's overhang. 27 references.« less
  • The calcite- and pyrite-cemented Eocene Carrizo sandstone on the flank of Butler salt dome in East Texas was formed by processes similar to those that form calcite cap rocks throughout the Gulf Coast. Isotopic evidence indicates that the bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons combined with the venting of deep sour gas and the dissolution of anhydrite from the dome resulted in the precipitation of these cements. Identification of the origins of these cements has lead to a better understanding of the paleofluid-flow associated with the dome. The Carrizo is a diagenetic quartzarenite with 42-50% concretionary calcite and pyrite cements. The calcitemore » cement is bound to the northwest by a pyrite-cemented normal fault radial to the dome while the pyrite is found on both sides of the fault. Calcite {delta}{sup 13}C (-18 to -37 {per_thousand} (PDB)) and {delta}{sup 18}O (-6 to -9{per_thousand} (PDB)) show a mixed source of both waters (meteoric and deep) and hydrocarbons (oil, gas, and lignite). Heavy pyrite {delta}{sup 34}S (12-15 {per_thousand} (CDI)) represents H{sub 2}S supply from deep sour gas. Deep waters, methane, and H{sub 2}S migrated up the dome flank and out the fault into the Carrizo, already containing oil and lignite, and pyrite precipitated along the fault and in adjacent sediments. Bacteria oxidized the hydrocarbons and, with the meteoric and formation waters, formed bicarbonate. Calcium bearing fluids from the dome moved into the Caffizo, and calcite began to precipitate. However, pyrite cement along the fault prevented northwestern migration of the fluids, confining calcite precipitation to the southeast.« less