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Title: Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylendiisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylendiisocyanate

Abstract

Individuals who paint cars often complain to doctors about respiratory problems. Car painters are exposed to isocyanates, especially hexamethylendiisocyanate (HDI), and biuret modified HDI (HDI-BT). The mean exposure to HDI-BT was 115 micrograms/m3 in the air (range 10-385 micrograms/m3), which exceeds the time-weighted Swedish threshold level of 90 micrograms/m3. Exposure to HDI was about 1.0 microgram/m3 with brief peaks. This study investigated the effect of HDI and HDI-BT on lung function and included two control groups: (1) car platers, exposed to the same solvents and grinding dust as car painters, but not to isocyanates, and (2) car mechanics (controls), not exposed to the mentioned agents. Car painters and car platers were compared to car mechanics on Monday before work. Acute effects of car painting were tested by comparing the lung function values on Monday morning with those on Friday afternoon. Pulmonary function was evaluated by means of spirometry and a single breath nitrogen washout. Spirometry in painters and platers did not differ from that in controls, i.e., car mechanics. Closing volume in relation to vital capacity (CV%) was increased in car painters, suggestive of a small airways disease on Monday before work and tended to increase during a work week.more » Car platers did not differ from controls.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)
OSTI Identifier:
5193899
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Arch. Environ. Health; (United States); Journal Volume: 42:6
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ISOCYANATES; TOXICITY; LUNGS; DYNAMIC FUNCTION STUDIES; PAINTS; HEALTH HAZARDS; MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE; PERSONNEL; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM DISEASES; BODY; COATINGS; DISEASES; HAZARDS; ORGANS; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM; SAFETY STANDARDS; STANDARDS; 560300* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology

Citation Formats

Alexandersson, R., Hedenstierna, G., Plato, N., and Kolmodin-Hedman, B.. Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylendiisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylendiisocyanate. United States: N. p., 1987. Web. doi:10.1080/00039896.1987.9934361.
Alexandersson, R., Hedenstierna, G., Plato, N., & Kolmodin-Hedman, B.. Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylendiisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylendiisocyanate. United States. doi:10.1080/00039896.1987.9934361.
Alexandersson, R., Hedenstierna, G., Plato, N., and Kolmodin-Hedman, B.. Sun . "Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylendiisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylendiisocyanate". United States. doi:10.1080/00039896.1987.9934361.
@article{osti_5193899,
title = {Exposure, lung function, and symptoms in car painters exposed to hexamethylendiisocyanate and biuret modified hexamethylendiisocyanate},
author = {Alexandersson, R. and Hedenstierna, G. and Plato, N. and Kolmodin-Hedman, B.},
abstractNote = {Individuals who paint cars often complain to doctors about respiratory problems. Car painters are exposed to isocyanates, especially hexamethylendiisocyanate (HDI), and biuret modified HDI (HDI-BT). The mean exposure to HDI-BT was 115 micrograms/m3 in the air (range 10-385 micrograms/m3), which exceeds the time-weighted Swedish threshold level of 90 micrograms/m3. Exposure to HDI was about 1.0 microgram/m3 with brief peaks. This study investigated the effect of HDI and HDI-BT on lung function and included two control groups: (1) car platers, exposed to the same solvents and grinding dust as car painters, but not to isocyanates, and (2) car mechanics (controls), not exposed to the mentioned agents. Car painters and car platers were compared to car mechanics on Monday before work. Acute effects of car painting were tested by comparing the lung function values on Monday morning with those on Friday afternoon. Pulmonary function was evaluated by means of spirometry and a single breath nitrogen washout. Spirometry in painters and platers did not differ from that in controls, i.e., car mechanics. Closing volume in relation to vital capacity (CV%) was increased in car painters, suggestive of a small airways disease on Monday before work and tended to increase during a work week. Car platers did not differ from controls.},
doi = {10.1080/00039896.1987.9934361},
journal = {Arch. Environ. Health; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 42:6,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1987},
month = {Sun Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1987}
}
  • Thirty-six car painters and 115 control persons participated in a follow-up investigation 6 years after the initial study, including measurement of lung function (dynamic spirometry and nitrogen washout test) and estimation of exposure to diisocyanates based on individual working routines, use of respiratory protection equipment, and measurements. The mean exposure for the car painters was 0.0015 mg/m3 hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) and 0.09 mg/m3 hexamethylenediisocyanate-biurettrimer (HDI-BT), but frequently there were peak exposures exceeding 2.0 mg/m3 HDI-BT for at least 30 sec. Compared with smoking controls, the smoking car painters had greater yearly reduction in FVC (95 versus 38 ml), FEV1 (61 versusmore » 28 ml), and VC (77 versus 30 ml). The nonsmoking car painters showed no differences in lung volumes compared with their nonsmoking controls. The impairment correlated well with the frequency of high peak exposures to HDI-BT, but not with the mean exposure to diisocyanates.« less
  • The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was registered and ventilatory function was determined in 164 men exposed to oil mist. The average exposure time was 16.2 years. One hundred fifty-nine office workers served as controls. The exposed men reported more respiratory symptoms: 14% of the exposed nonsmokers v. 2% of the nonsmoking controls having cough at least three months a year. There were non significant differences between spirometric measurements and chest roentgenograms of the men exposed to oil mist and those of the office workers. The lung function of 25 nonsmoking exposed men was further examined with other lung function tests.more » The mean values for closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau, total lung capacity, residual volume, elastic recoil at various lung volumes, and diffusion capacity did not differ significantly.« less
  • Fifteen asthmatic volunteers were exposed in a double-blind, random manner to room air and 2.0 ppm formaldehyde for 40 min in an environmental chamber. These exposures were repeated on a separate day during moderate exercise (450 kpm/min) for 10 min. Ambient and dew point temperatures were 23.0 +/- 0.0/sup 0/C and 11.5 +/- 1.0/sup 0/C, respectively. No significant airway obstruction as measured by flow-volume parameters and airway resistance was noted in this group during or immediately after exposure. Furthermore, sequential measurements of peak flow for 24 hr following formaldehyde exposure revealed no delayed airway response. In contrast, in comparison tomore » the baseline methacholine inhalation challenge (MIC) test on the screening day, 8 of 12 asthmatics demonstrated a lower threshold to MIC following 2.0 ppm exposure for 40 min; however, the mean and median decrements of threshold in methacholine concentration of 10.4 mg/ml and 24.3 mg/ml were not significant. Bad odor, sore throat, and eye irritation were common during exposure but symptoms were infrequent afterward.« less
  • Twenty-three subjects exposed to naphthalene-diisocyanate (NDI, (mean air concentration 0.002-0.007 mg/m/sup 3/)) were examined with regard to symptoms and pulmonary function. Irritation of the eyes, cough, and exertion dyspnea were more common in exposed subjects than in unexposed controls. Closing volume, as a percentage of vital capacity (CV%), was 6% higher than the reference value on Monday morning after 2 days with no exposure to NDI. The other lung function variables were normal. Two days of industrial exposure caused no further change in any lung function variable. The difference between measured and expected CV% increased with age in the exposedmore » subjects. Five employees who had complained of severe symptoms during NDI exposure and who, therefore, had been transferred to other tasks with no exposure to NDI, displayed marked increases in CV% and a reduction in the forced vital capacity by an average of 0.61. Smokers and nonsmokers displayed similar lung function changes.« less
  • The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS hadmore » significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.« less