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Title: Biotechnology and genetic selection of fast-growing hardwoods

Abstract

Hybrid poplar have been shown to be useful for a wide variety of products. Their fast growth and ease in maintaining desirable genetic character make hybrid poplar highly suited to intensive culture systems. This study was initiated to evaluate a genetic selection trail consisting of 54 hybrid poplar clones and to locate and sample eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees for obtainment of scion material to be included in a poplar germplasm archive for future breeding purposes. Because the basis of an effective and cost efficient fast-growing hardwood plantation program is a gene pool with a broad genetic base, the quality and diversity of the genetic resource are of prime concern to the long-term success of biotechnology, agroforestry programs. Additionally, tests of the captured gene pool in site-specific genetic selection and clone-site trials are the necessary successive steps to establish a viable woody crop biomass program. The current project sought to address both of these basic issues so as to improve management opportunities for short-rotation hybrid poplar energy plantations in New York State. Results of the studies showed that short rotation intensive culture hybrid poplar systems are feasible in New York State, and can be successfully used if proper sitemore » conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (USA). Research Foundation)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (USA); State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (USA). Research Foundation
Sponsoring Org.:
GRI; NYGG; NYSERDA; SUNY
OSTI Identifier:
5105365
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 5105365; Legacy ID: TI90006294
Report Number(s):
NYSERDA-89-11
ON: TI90006294
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOMASS; TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT; PLANT GROWTH; OPTIMIZATION; POPLARS; EVALUATION; BIOTECHNOLOGY; DISEASE RESISTANCE; GENETIC VARIABILITY; GENETICS; HYBRIDIZATION; PLANT DISEASES; PROGRESS REPORT; SYNTHETIC FUELS; WOOD FUELS; BIOLOGICAL VARIABILITY; BIOLOGY; DOCUMENT TYPES; ENERGY SOURCES; FUELS; GROWTH; MAGNOLIOPHYTA; MAGNOLIOPSIDA; PLANTS; RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES; TREES 090800* -- Biomass Fuels-- Production-- (1990-)

Citation Formats

White, E.H., Abrahamson, L.P., and Maynard, C.A. Biotechnology and genetic selection of fast-growing hardwoods. United States: N. p., 1989. Web.
White, E.H., Abrahamson, L.P., & Maynard, C.A. Biotechnology and genetic selection of fast-growing hardwoods. United States.
White, E.H., Abrahamson, L.P., and Maynard, C.A. Sat . "Biotechnology and genetic selection of fast-growing hardwoods". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5105365,
title = {Biotechnology and genetic selection of fast-growing hardwoods},
author = {White, E.H. and Abrahamson, L.P. and Maynard, C.A.},
abstractNote = {Hybrid poplar have been shown to be useful for a wide variety of products. Their fast growth and ease in maintaining desirable genetic character make hybrid poplar highly suited to intensive culture systems. This study was initiated to evaluate a genetic selection trail consisting of 54 hybrid poplar clones and to locate and sample eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees for obtainment of scion material to be included in a poplar germplasm archive for future breeding purposes. Because the basis of an effective and cost efficient fast-growing hardwood plantation program is a gene pool with a broad genetic base, the quality and diversity of the genetic resource are of prime concern to the long-term success of biotechnology, agroforestry programs. Additionally, tests of the captured gene pool in site-specific genetic selection and clone-site trials are the necessary successive steps to establish a viable woody crop biomass program. The current project sought to address both of these basic issues so as to improve management opportunities for short-rotation hybrid poplar energy plantations in New York State. Results of the studies showed that short rotation intensive culture hybrid poplar systems are feasible in New York State, and can be successfully used if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1989},
month = {Sat Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1989}
}

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  • A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes culturedmore » in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.« less
  • The intensive culture of hybrid poplar has received in-depth study as part of the Fast-Growing Hardwood Program. Research has concentrated on short-rotation intensive culture systems. Specific studies and operations included establishing and maintaining a nursery/cutting orchard, installing clone-site trials in central and southern New York State and initiating studies of no-till site preparation, nutrient utilization efficiency, wood quality and soil solution chemistry. The nursery/cutting orchard was used to provide material for various research plantings and as a genotype repository. Clone- site trials results showed that hybrid poplar growth potential was affected by clone type and was related to inherent soil-sitemore » conditions. No-till techniques were shown to be successful in establishing hybrid poplar in terms of survival and growth when compared to conventional clean tillage and/or no competition control, and can be considered for use on sites that are particularly prone to erosion. Nutrient use efficiency was significantly affected by clone type, and should be a consideration when selecting clones for operational planting if fertilization is to be effectively and efficiently used. Wood quality differed among clones with site condition and tree age inferred as important factors. Soil solution chemistry was minimally affected by intensive cultural practices with no measured adverse effect on soil water quality. Generally, results of these studies showed that appropriate hybrid poplar clones grown in short-rotation intensively cultured systems can be used successfully in New York State if proper site conditions exist and appropriate establishment and maintenance techniques are used. 37 refs., 4 figs., 22 tabs.« less
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  • Public concern over the adverse visual impact of clearcutting has heightened interest in developing and testing alternative regeneration practices for central Appalachian hardwoods. Group selection can meet aesthetic goals while providing suitable light conditions to reproduce shade-intolerant species. Volume control and residual stand density are used to reg8ulate periodic cuts. In central Appalachian hardwoods, openings must have a minimum size of 0.4 acre; all stems 1.0 inch d.b.h. and larger are cut to reproduce desirable shade-intollerant species. Openings should be located using the worst first approach to give the growing space occupied by mature trees or risky trees to fastermore » growing, desirable regeneration.« less
  • Walkthrough surveys of six companies involved in research and development of recombinant DNA techniques applicable to fermentation processes (SIC-7391) were conducted. Engineering controls at the sites included general and local ventilation systems, gas filtration, waste-products control, biological safety cabinets, access barriers, and room surfaces that met National Institutes of Health guidelines for working with contaminants. Five companies regularly tested and certified biological safety cabinets and walking hoods, and monitored the autoclaves. Four companies had guidelines for safe work practices and detailed plans for emergencies and laboratory accidents. Three facilities had industrial hygiene programs. All facilities had medical programs, but thesemore » varied in objectives, essential elements, and application. The authors note that the companies that were new to the field of fermentation technology were less sophisticated in their approach to occupational health and safety than the more-experienced companies. Recommendations include: establishing medical-surveillance programs with preemployment and periodic medical examinations and a serological monitoring system; implementing a systematic preventive-maintenance system for agitator seals; using control and pressure-relief valves; installing equipment safeguards; and establishing a registry of all work employed in recombinant DNA processes.« less