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Title: Acid rain

Abstract

An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5100181
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 5100181
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Potlatch Story; (United States); Journal Volume: 24:1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ACID RAIN; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; ALUMINIUM; LEACHING; FORESTS; PRODUCTIVITY; LAKES; ACIDIFICATION; NITROGEN OXIDES; ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT; STREAMS; SULFUR DIOXIDE; ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS; APPALACHIA; CANADA; ECONOMICS; EUROPE; FISHES; GILLS; GLOBAL ASPECTS; SOILS; USA; ANIMALS; APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS; CHALCOGENIDES; DISSOLUTION; ELEMENTS; MASS TRANSFER; METALS; MOUNTAINS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; NORTH AMERICA; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; RAIN; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SULFUR OXIDES; SURFACE WATERS; VERTEBRATES 500200* -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (-1989); 520200 -- Environment, Aquatic-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (-1989); 560303 -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology-- Plants-- (-1987); 560305 -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology-- Vertebrates-- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Not Available. Acid rain. United States: N. p., 1984. Web.
Not Available. Acid rain. United States.
Not Available. Fri . "Acid rain". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5100181,
title = {Acid rain},
author = {Not Available},
abstractNote = {An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.},
doi = {},
journal = {Potlatch Story; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 24:1,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 1984},
month = {Fri Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 1984}
}
  • The RAINS (Regional Acidification Information and Simulation) model developed by European scientists can be used to analyze the effects of policy actions regarding use of alternative energies and various technologies to reduce emissions. In constructing the model, existing models were used as much as possible and linked in a single framework. Scientists from many countries have served in the model's review process. RAINS emphasizes the transboundary aspect of air pollution. Hence, spatially it covers all of Europe including the European part of the USSR, with a time horizon from 1960 to 2040. The model is currently sulfur-based because of themore » principal role of sulfur dioxide as a precursor of acid deposition. However, the model is being expanded to include emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia. RAINS consists of three linked compartments: pollutant generation, atmospheric processes, and environmental impacts. Sections are devoted to soil acidification lake acidification, other impact submodels, uncertainty analysis, and policy using science. 6 figures, 1 table.« less
  • Acid rain has now found its way into the economic and political arena, where geopolitical debates about the causes, effects, and mitigation or elimination of acid rain grow increasingly heated. After an overview of the acid rain problem and the ineffectiveness of the Clean Air Act, the author analyzes Senator Stafford's Bill (S. 768) in light of its economic, political, and environmental impact. The bill amends the Clean Air Act by calling for a three-stage plan in reducing acid rain damage. However it lacks adequate funding appropriations to equitably support its policies. To become an effective solution, the bill needsmore » to include an emissions tax and/or trust fund that will generate revenues. It must also mandate nitrogen oxide emission reductions in conjunction with the proposed sulfur dioxide reductions.« less
  • This is a general article on acid rain. The history of acid rain research is outlined, and the basic meteorology of acid rain in reviewed. The types and mechanisms of acid rain injury to plants are surveyed.
  • Significant amounts of acid and other pollutants reach the ground without the aid of precipitation, but most of it goes unrecorded.
  • The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.