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Title: Global scale hydrology - Advances in land surface modeling

Abstract

Research into global scale hydrology is an expanding area that includes researchers from the meteorology, climatology, ecology and hydrology communities. This paper reviews research in this area carried out in the United States during the last IUGG quadrennial period of 1987-1990. The review covers the representation of land-surface hydrologic processes for general circulation models (GCMs), sensitivity analysis of these representations on global hydrologic fields like precipitation, regional studies of climate that have global hydrologic implications, recent field studies and experiments whose aims are the improved understanding of land surface-atmospheric interactions, and the use of remotely sensed data for the further understanding of the spatial variability of surface hydrologic processes that are important at regional and global climate scales. 76 refs.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5053375
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 5053375
Report Number(s):
CONF-910878--
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6853; CODEN: RGPSB
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics; (United States); Journal Volume: 29; Conference: 20. general assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), Vienna (Austria), 11-24 Aug 1991; Related Information: Shea, M. A
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; HYDROLOGY; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; CLIMATES; GENERAL CIRCULATION MODELS; GLOBAL ASPECTS; METEOROLOGY; REMOTE SENSING; USA; DEVELOPED COUNTRIES; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; NORTH AMERICA 580000* -- Geosciences

Citation Formats

Wood, E.F. Global scale hydrology - Advances in land surface modeling. United States: N. p., 1991. Web.
Wood, E.F. Global scale hydrology - Advances in land surface modeling. United States.
Wood, E.F. Tue . "Global scale hydrology - Advances in land surface modeling". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5053375,
title = {Global scale hydrology - Advances in land surface modeling},
author = {Wood, E.F.},
abstractNote = {Research into global scale hydrology is an expanding area that includes researchers from the meteorology, climatology, ecology and hydrology communities. This paper reviews research in this area carried out in the United States during the last IUGG quadrennial period of 1987-1990. The review covers the representation of land-surface hydrologic processes for general circulation models (GCMs), sensitivity analysis of these representations on global hydrologic fields like precipitation, regional studies of climate that have global hydrologic implications, recent field studies and experiments whose aims are the improved understanding of land surface-atmospheric interactions, and the use of remotely sensed data for the further understanding of the spatial variability of surface hydrologic processes that are important at regional and global climate scales. 76 refs.},
doi = {},
journal = {Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1991},
month = {Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1991}
}

Conference:
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  • The sensitivity of global climate to the characterization of the land-surface hydrology is investigated using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory GCM at R15 resolution with the standard Budyko bucket and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model, which incorporates a parsimonious parameterization of the subgridscale spatial variability of soil moisture capacity, as well as base flow, by means of soil moisture drainage during dry periods. Four experiments were performed using the VIC model. The first used a globally fixed soil moisture capacity of 15 cm to provide a comparison to the Budyko bucket. The second used a more realistic globally varymore » soil moisture capacity. The results of the VIC fixed runs (15 cm) showed that global average soil moisture was considerably lower (about 2.5 cm on average) as compared with the bucket runs, global evaporation and precipitation were reduced, and surface air temperature was increased, especially in the Northern Hemisphere in summer. The greater sensitivity of the Northern Hemisphere land areas to the altered land hydrology is attributed primarily to recycling of summertime precipitation in the interior of these continents. The authors found, somewhat surprisingly, that the water-holding capacities of the VIC model had relatively little influence on the simulated climates of northern Eurasia and North America. This is attributed to the fact that much of the soil moisture capacity is unutilized for evaporation, due to the dry period drainage to base flow. The results argue for representation of the surface hydrology in GCMs with two-layer soil models, which are capable of representing the cycling of moisture during dry periods by means of surface evaporation, which is generally underestimated by single-layer models. 30 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.« less
  • Analyses of interactions between the atmosphere and the continental surface in climate and weather forecast models are summarized in the paper. Phase 4 of the project, which considers the performance of land-surface schemes when coupled to selected atmospheric models, is described and preliminary results are discussed. A summary of phase 2 analyses, which compared land-surface schemes to observed fluxes and included a sensitivity analysis, is presented in some detail for background information and comparison purposes. Phase 4 is designed to develop a general coupling scheme which is able to link selected land-surface schemes to atmospheric models, to apply this tomore » two test cases, and to analyze the results. This paper presents a method for coupling land-surface schemes to the vertical diffusion parameterization of an atmospheric model that can accommodate most numerical schemes. Implicit, semi-implicit, and explicit coupling methods are described. 18 refs., 6 figs.« less
  • In this paper an approach to land-surface modeling is presented that allows us to view the watershed as the fundamental hydrologic unit. The analytic form of TOPMODEL equations are incorporated into the soil column framework and the resulting model is used to predict the saturated fraction of the watershed and baseflow in a consistent fashion. Soil moisture heterogeneity represented by saturated lowlands subsequently impacts the partitioning of surface fluxes, including evapotranspiration and runoff. The approach is computationally efficient, allows for a greatly improved simulation of the hydrologic cycle, and is easily coupled into the existing framework of the current generationmore » of single column land-surface models. Because this approach uses the statistics of the topography rather than the details of the topography, it is compatible with the large spatial scales of today`s regional and global climate models. Five years of meteorological and hydrological data from the Sleepers River watershed located in the northeastern United States where winter snow cover is significant were used to drive the new model. Site validation data were sufficient to evaluate model performance with regard to various aspects of the watershed water balance, including snowpack growth/ablation, the spring snowmelt hydrograph, storm hydrographs, and the seasonal development of watershed evapotranspiration and soil moisture. 67 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.« less
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  • In the Eastern Appalachian Region unique problems are created by the rugged mountainous terrain, necessitating contour mining or mountain top removal mining practices that leave the terrain highly modified. These activities result in a major disruption of the antecedent hydrologic and hydraulic conditions. Infiltration rates, overland flow paths, subsurface flow paths, soils and cover conditions are all modified. No existing modeling technique can adequately describe the topography in terms of the detail topological relationships such that the concentration of water via overland flow and subsurface flow is accurately simulated in space and time. One way of circumventing this shortcoming ismore » to apply a digital terrain model based data management system which, inherently, manages all input parameters and attribute information. The data management system is built around an irregular triangulated grid digital terrain features such as ridge lines, slope representing all terrain features such as ridge lines, slope breaks, streams and channels; and in the case of a mining site, high walls, pits, spoil piles and access roads. In addition, attribute data such as soils, land use, vegetative cover and geology are included. A most effective component of the system interactive hydrologic modeling system is to be developed with substantial use of computer graphics to display output data in easily interpretable form.« less