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Title: The role of water ventilation and sediment ingestion on the uptake of hexachlorobenzene by gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine whether sediment ingestion of water ventilation was the primary route for uptake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the detritivorous fish, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Twenty nonligated and 30 esophagus-ligated fish were exposed to sediments spiked with 1 {micro}g/g HCB for 29 d. The nonligated fish roiled the water as they fed, forcing the ligated fish to ventilate turbid water. Fish were collected 7, 14, 22, and 29 d after initiation of the experiment. Detectable levels of HCB were found in all ligated and nonligated fish, although the concentration of HCB in the ligated fish only ranged from 14 to 33% of that found in the nonligated fish. Thus, ingestion of contaminated sediments is a significant source of HCB for gizzard shad.

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]
  1. Nicholls State Univ., Thibodaux, LA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences
  2. Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Zoology
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
474295
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry; Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: PBD: Oct 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; CHLORINATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; WATER POLLUTION; BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS; FISHES; BIOLOGICAL ACCUMULATION; METABOLISM; BIODEGRADATION

Citation Formats

Kolok, A.S., Groetsch, K.J., and Oris, J.T. The role of water ventilation and sediment ingestion on the uptake of hexachlorobenzene by gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). United States: N. p., 1996. Web. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(1996)015<1760:TROWVA>2.3.CO;2.
Kolok, A.S., Groetsch, K.J., & Oris, J.T. The role of water ventilation and sediment ingestion on the uptake of hexachlorobenzene by gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). United States. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(1996)015<1760:TROWVA>2.3.CO;2.
Kolok, A.S., Groetsch, K.J., and Oris, J.T. 1996. "The role of water ventilation and sediment ingestion on the uptake of hexachlorobenzene by gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)". United States. doi:10.1897/1551-5028(1996)015<1760:TROWVA>2.3.CO;2.
@article{osti_474295,
title = {The role of water ventilation and sediment ingestion on the uptake of hexachlorobenzene by gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)},
author = {Kolok, A.S. and Groetsch, K.J. and Oris, J.T.},
abstractNote = {The objective of this study was to determine whether sediment ingestion of water ventilation was the primary route for uptake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the detritivorous fish, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Twenty nonligated and 30 esophagus-ligated fish were exposed to sediments spiked with 1 {micro}g/g HCB for 29 d. The nonligated fish roiled the water as they fed, forcing the ligated fish to ventilate turbid water. Fish were collected 7, 14, 22, and 29 d after initiation of the experiment. Detectable levels of HCB were found in all ligated and nonligated fish, although the concentration of HCB in the ligated fish only ranged from 14 to 33% of that found in the nonligated fish. Thus, ingestion of contaminated sediments is a significant source of HCB for gizzard shad.},
doi = {10.1897/1551-5028(1996)015<1760:TROWVA>2.3.CO;2},
journal = {Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry},
number = 10,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = 1996,
month =
}
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether sediment ingestion or water ventilation was the primary route of uptake for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), a detritivorous fish. Two experiments were conducted in which fish were exposed to sediments spiked with 1 {micro}g/g BaP. In the first experiment, fish were prevented from feeding by esophagus ligation. In the second experiment, 20 nonligated fish and 30 ligated fish were added to the aquarium. The nonligated fish roiled the water as they fed. Fish were collected 4, 8, 15, and 22 d after the experiments began. Gizzard shadmore » metabolize BaP; therefore, the concentrations of BaP equivalents (parent BaP plus metabolite) were determined. Concentrations of BaP equivalents were significantly greater in the ligated fish in experiment 2 relative to those in experiment 1. In contrast, the concentration of BaP equivalents in the ligated fish in experiment 2 was not significantly different than that in the nonligated fish. The results suggest that ventilation of turbid water may be a significant source of BaP for gizzard shad. Sediment ingestion, however, does not appear to significantly influence the total body concentration of BaP equivalents in gizzard shad.« less
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether sediment ingestion or water ventilation was the primary route of uptake of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) into the tissues of the detritivorous fish, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Two experiments were conducted in which fish were exposed to sediments spiked with 1 {micro}g/g BaP. In the first experiment, fish were prevented from feeding on the sediment by surgical ligation of the esophagus. Water flow in the tank exceeded 12 turnovers per day, and there was no detectable concentration of BaP in the fish after 22 days of exposure. The second experiment duplicated the first,more » with the exception that 20 nonligated fish were added to the aquaria along with 20 ligated fish, and the semipermeable membrane devices were used to quantify the bioavailability of BaP. The nonligated fish roiled the water as they fed, forcing the ligated fish to ventilate turbid water. Fish were collected 4, 8, 15 and 22 days after initiation of the experiment. Fourteen of the twenty nonligated fish had detectable levels of BaP in their tissues. In these fish, concentrations of BaP exceeded 0.01 {micro}g/g after 4 days of exposure, but did not significantly change for the remainder of the experiment. Only three of the ligated fish had detectable concentrations of BaP in their tissues. Sediment ingestion appears to be the primary route of entry of BaP into gizzard shad, while ventilation appears to be a minor route of entry even when the fish ventilate turbid water.« less
  • Aspects of the etiology of subcutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms in feral gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) collected from Lake of the Arbuckles, Oklahoma, were investigated. Field collections of adult and juvenile gizzard shad were conducted to determine the prevalence and seasonality of neoplasms and site specificity of neoplasms-bearing fish. Overall neoplasm prevalence for adult gizzard shad was 22.1%; no juveniles exhibited neoplasms. Neoplasm occurrence did not appear seasonal. Neoplasm-bearing gizzard shad were found at all three sampling sites within Lake of the Arbuckles with similar neoplasm prevalence rates (Guy Sandy Creek 22.1%, Rock creek, 17.9%, and Buckhorn Creek 22.4%). No gizzard shadmore » (juvenile or adult) collected from Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma, the reference site, exhibited neoplasms. Water, sediment, and shad liver tissue from Lake of the Arbuckles and the reference site were analyzed for total recoverable metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead, by graphite furnace atomic absorption). Chromium, copper, and nickel were found in the water samples at concentrations of >1 to 8.6 {micro}g/L. Low concentrations (>1 to 13.6 {micro}g/g wet weight) of all the metals were found in the sediment and liver tissue for both sites. Heavy metal contamination does not appear linked to neoplasm occurrence. To determine if a nonbacterial infectious agent was responsible for tumor formation, cell-free neoplasm homogenates were injected into healthy rainbow trout. Neoplasms were not transmitted into rainbow trout. Neoplasms were not transmitted into rainbow trout. The etiology of these neoplasms remains unknown.« less
  • Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to monitor seasonal cytochrome P4501A monooxygenase (MO) activity (measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity) in gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Basal EROD activity declined in midsummer but returned to postspawning spring levels by late summer. Seasonal variation in basal EROD activity corresponded with changes in liver somatic index, condition factor, and percent body lipid, indicating that seasonal variation in basal field EROD activity may result from changing physiological condition. Benzo[a]pyrene induction experiments demonstrated that, although the level of EROD activity changed seasonally, the magnitude of induction relative to corn-oil-injected controls remained the same. Kinetic studiesmore » indicated monthly changes in apparent V[sub max] but no change in apparent K[sub m]. Taken together, these results suggest that seasonal changes in EROD activity reflect changes in hepatic P4501A protein concentration. This study has demonstrated that it can be inappropriate to interpret EROD activity from a suspect site without first understanding how seasonal field conditions influence P4501A activity.« less
  • Temperature change kinetics were determined for a sample of 22 gizzard shad, ranging in weight from 13.2 to 467.5 grams. Tests consisted of monitoring the intestinal temperatures of shad transferred between two well aerated water baths held at 9.2 +- 0.13 C (mean and standard error) and 18.7 +- 0.08 C. None of the 22 live shad subjected to the +- ..delta..T of 9.5 C died during exposure. The similarity of double logarithmic regressions of body weight and half-time (Table 1) indicate that neither the direction of exposure nor the state of the test fish greatly influenced temperature change kinetics.