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Title: RESEARCH ON SPACECRAFT AND POWERPLANT INTEGRATION PROBLEMS. First Quarterly Report, April 26 to July 26, 1963

Abstract

Mission requirements for unmanned scientific probes are outlined and spacecraft configuration and powerplant design studies for Rankine cycle turboelectric and in-core thermionic energy conversion systems are discussed. An examination of the existing booster vehicle programs leads to the selection of SATURN 1B and V for launching nuclear spacecraft. By further analysis a NAVIGATOR envelope of 17 planetary, asteroid, and solar missions was selected which are considered to be representative of the postVoyager period in deep space exploration. The major categories of payloads were determined and weights, power consumption, heat rejection and general dimensions compiled. Capsule gross weights were estimated for combinations of atmospheric and propulsion braking to enter many planetary and satellite bodies of interest. Included in the estimates of spacecraft payloads were the results of radar and communication system studies which were explored in some detail. Communication system studies included antenna size and bandwidth selection, which also yielded estimates of weights, power consumption and dimensions. The cooling requirements for each type of spacecraft payload were then determined. Characteristic velocities were estimated for high and low thrust missions to permit comparison of nuclear electric systems with chemical or nuclear rockets. Geocentric, heliocentric, and planetary capture trajectories were computed for optimizedmore » low thrust missions with the objective of determining the effects of propulsion parameters. Data were obtained on mass ratio, thrust profile, power loading, specific impulse, launch dates, and travel time for various solar system missions. On the basis of radiator panel weight and structural design studies, the cone-cylindrical radiator configuration was selected. An examination of SATURN booster payload limiting characteristics yielded the spacecraft envelope restrictions on shape, C.G., and center of pressure. Estimates were made of payloads for boost to orbit, escape, and beyond escape. Power levels were set at 400 kw, 1 Mw and 5.25 Mw for turboelectric systems; and 275 kw, 1.13 Mw and 3.25 Mw for in-core thermionics. These ratings correspond to spacecraft weights of 28,000; 54,000; 90,000; and 240,000 pounds for different combinations of SATURN 1B and V launch vehicles. Preliminary selections were made on powerplant cycle conditions and working fluids. The non-condensing radiator concept was chosen to simplify the powerplant vehicle interface permitting the use of redundant radiators in large systems. On these bases, six spacecraft configuration layouts are to be prepared and of these, the 400 kw and 1Mw turboelectric systems have been completed. Fixed conical radiators are to be used for all but the 1 Mw and 5.25 Mw torboelectric systems where area is prohibitive for packaging on the booster. In those cases a deployable split-cone design is used so that the number of joints can be minimized and the radiator structural integrity preserved. The powerplant studies have progressed to the completion of an initial layout for a 1 Mw turboelectric system. For the thermionic powerplant, a two-loop system with high temperature (around 1800 deg F) radiators was selected. (auth)« less

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
General Electric Co. Missile and Space Div., Valley Forge Space Technology Center, King of Prussia, Penna.
OSTI Identifier:
4657831
Report Number(s):
63SD760
NSA Number:
NSA-17-038573
DOE Contract Number:  
NAS 3-2533
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Orig. Receipt Date: 31-DEC-63
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
SPACE APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY; CHEMICALS; COMMUNICATIONS; COMPUTERS; CONFIGURATION; CONVERSION; COOLING; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRICITY; FLUID FLOW; HEAT EXCHANGERS; HEAT TRANSFER; HIGH TEMPERATURE; JETS; JOINTS; ORBITS; PAYLOAD; PLANETS; PLASMA; POWER; PROPULSION; RADAR; REACTORS; ROCKETS; SATELLITES; SPACE FLIGHT; SPACE VEHICLES; STANDARDS; STEAM; THERMIONICS; THERMODYNAMICS; TURBINES; VELOCITY; WEIGHT; NESDPS Office of Nuclear Energy Space and Defense Power Systems

Citation Formats

. RESEARCH ON SPACECRAFT AND POWERPLANT INTEGRATION PROBLEMS. First Quarterly Report, April 26 to July 26, 1963. United States: N. p., 1963. Web.
. RESEARCH ON SPACECRAFT AND POWERPLANT INTEGRATION PROBLEMS. First Quarterly Report, April 26 to July 26, 1963. United States.
. Thu . "RESEARCH ON SPACECRAFT AND POWERPLANT INTEGRATION PROBLEMS. First Quarterly Report, April 26 to July 26, 1963". United States.
@article{osti_4657831,
title = {RESEARCH ON SPACECRAFT AND POWERPLANT INTEGRATION PROBLEMS. First Quarterly Report, April 26 to July 26, 1963},
author = {},
abstractNote = {Mission requirements for unmanned scientific probes are outlined and spacecraft configuration and powerplant design studies for Rankine cycle turboelectric and in-core thermionic energy conversion systems are discussed. An examination of the existing booster vehicle programs leads to the selection of SATURN 1B and V for launching nuclear spacecraft. By further analysis a NAVIGATOR envelope of 17 planetary, asteroid, and solar missions was selected which are considered to be representative of the postVoyager period in deep space exploration. The major categories of payloads were determined and weights, power consumption, heat rejection and general dimensions compiled. Capsule gross weights were estimated for combinations of atmospheric and propulsion braking to enter many planetary and satellite bodies of interest. Included in the estimates of spacecraft payloads were the results of radar and communication system studies which were explored in some detail. Communication system studies included antenna size and bandwidth selection, which also yielded estimates of weights, power consumption and dimensions. The cooling requirements for each type of spacecraft payload were then determined. Characteristic velocities were estimated for high and low thrust missions to permit comparison of nuclear electric systems with chemical or nuclear rockets. Geocentric, heliocentric, and planetary capture trajectories were computed for optimized low thrust missions with the objective of determining the effects of propulsion parameters. Data were obtained on mass ratio, thrust profile, power loading, specific impulse, launch dates, and travel time for various solar system missions. On the basis of radiator panel weight and structural design studies, the cone-cylindrical radiator configuration was selected. An examination of SATURN booster payload limiting characteristics yielded the spacecraft envelope restrictions on shape, C.G., and center of pressure. Estimates were made of payloads for boost to orbit, escape, and beyond escape. Power levels were set at 400 kw, 1 Mw and 5.25 Mw for turboelectric systems; and 275 kw, 1.13 Mw and 3.25 Mw for in-core thermionics. These ratings correspond to spacecraft weights of 28,000; 54,000; 90,000; and 240,000 pounds for different combinations of SATURN 1B and V launch vehicles. Preliminary selections were made on powerplant cycle conditions and working fluids. The non-condensing radiator concept was chosen to simplify the powerplant vehicle interface permitting the use of redundant radiators in large systems. On these bases, six spacecraft configuration layouts are to be prepared and of these, the 400 kw and 1Mw turboelectric systems have been completed. Fixed conical radiators are to be used for all but the 1 Mw and 5.25 Mw torboelectric systems where area is prohibitive for packaging on the booster. In those cases a deployable split-cone design is used so that the number of joints can be minimized and the radiator structural integrity preserved. The powerplant studies have progressed to the completion of an initial layout for a 1 Mw turboelectric system. For the thermionic powerplant, a two-loop system with high temperature (around 1800 deg F) radiators was selected. (auth)},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1963},
month = {10}
}

Technical Report:
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