skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: GAS-PRESSURE BONDING OF ZIRCALOY-CLAD FLAT-PLATE URANIUM DIOXIDE FUEL ELEMENTS

Abstract

A solid-state bonding technique involving the use of gas pressure at elevated temperatures was investigated for the preparation of compartmented Zircaloy-clad flat-plate uranium dioxide fuel elements. These investigations involved development of methods for the surface preparation and assembly of fuel- element components for bonding, determination of optimum bonding parameters, development of barrier coatings for uranium dioxide to prevent reaction with Zircaloy, and extensive testing and evaluation of the bonded fuel elements. During the course of this work, the process was continually modified and refined in an effort to improve the quality of the bonded element and decrease the cost of fabrication. The surface-preparation studies indicated that satisfactory bonding could be obtained consistently with both machined and belt-abraded components. Belt abrasion is more economical and was used as the standard technique in the development phases of the program. Initially the elements were assembled into a stainless steel or Ti-Namel envelope which was evacuated and sealed prior to bonding. Later studies showed that the quality of bonded elements could be improved and process costs decreased by edge welding the Zircaloy components to form a gastight assembly that was then bonded without use of a protective envelope. Further cost reductions were incorporated intomore » the process by the use of piece Zircaloy components to form the picture frame. Optimum bending with a minimum core-to-cladding reaction was achieved by pressure bonding at 1500 to 1550 deg F for 4 hr using a helium gas pressure of 10,000 psi. A postbonding heat treatment for 5 min at 1850 deg F in a salt bath promoted additional grain growth at the bond interface during the alpha-to-beta transformation. Barrier layers of graphite. chronaium, iron. molybdenum, nickel, niobium, palladium, and various oxides were investigated to prevent reaction between the UO/sub 2/ core and Zircaloy cladding. Graphite, in the form of a sprayed and buffed coating, and chromium were found to be relatively effective barriers. The graphite coating was easy to apply and less expensive than a chromium electroplate. (auth)« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, Ohio
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
4200462
Report Number(s):
BMI-1374
NSA Number:
NSA-14-007742
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-92
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Orig. Receipt Date: 31-DEC-60
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
METALS, CERAMICS, AND MATERIALS; BARRIERS; BONDING; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CHROMIUM; COATING; ECONOMICS; FUEL ELEMENTS; GASES; GRAIN SIZE; GRAPHITE; HELIUM; HIGH TEMPERATURE; IRON; MOLYBDENUM; NICKEL; NIOBIUM; OXIDES; PALLADIUM; PHASE DIAGRAMS; PLATES; PLATING; PREPARATION; PRESSURE; SURFACES; TESTING; URANIUM DIOXIDE; ZIRCALOY

Citation Formats

Paprocki, S.J., Hodge, E.S., Carmichael, D.C., and Gripshover, P.J. GAS-PRESSURE BONDING OF ZIRCALOY-CLAD FLAT-PLATE URANIUM DIOXIDE FUEL ELEMENTS. United States: N. p., 1959. Web. doi:10.2172/4200462.
Paprocki, S.J., Hodge, E.S., Carmichael, D.C., & Gripshover, P.J. GAS-PRESSURE BONDING OF ZIRCALOY-CLAD FLAT-PLATE URANIUM DIOXIDE FUEL ELEMENTS. United States. doi:10.2172/4200462.
Paprocki, S.J., Hodge, E.S., Carmichael, D.C., and Gripshover, P.J. Fri . "GAS-PRESSURE BONDING OF ZIRCALOY-CLAD FLAT-PLATE URANIUM DIOXIDE FUEL ELEMENTS". United States. doi:10.2172/4200462. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/4200462.
@article{osti_4200462,
title = {GAS-PRESSURE BONDING OF ZIRCALOY-CLAD FLAT-PLATE URANIUM DIOXIDE FUEL ELEMENTS},
author = {Paprocki, S.J. and Hodge, E.S. and Carmichael, D.C. and Gripshover, P.J.},
abstractNote = {A solid-state bonding technique involving the use of gas pressure at elevated temperatures was investigated for the preparation of compartmented Zircaloy-clad flat-plate uranium dioxide fuel elements. These investigations involved development of methods for the surface preparation and assembly of fuel- element components for bonding, determination of optimum bonding parameters, development of barrier coatings for uranium dioxide to prevent reaction with Zircaloy, and extensive testing and evaluation of the bonded fuel elements. During the course of this work, the process was continually modified and refined in an effort to improve the quality of the bonded element and decrease the cost of fabrication. The surface-preparation studies indicated that satisfactory bonding could be obtained consistently with both machined and belt-abraded components. Belt abrasion is more economical and was used as the standard technique in the development phases of the program. Initially the elements were assembled into a stainless steel or Ti-Namel envelope which was evacuated and sealed prior to bonding. Later studies showed that the quality of bonded elements could be improved and process costs decreased by edge welding the Zircaloy components to form a gastight assembly that was then bonded without use of a protective envelope. Further cost reductions were incorporated into the process by the use of piece Zircaloy components to form the picture frame. Optimum bending with a minimum core-to-cladding reaction was achieved by pressure bonding at 1500 to 1550 deg F for 4 hr using a helium gas pressure of 10,000 psi. A postbonding heat treatment for 5 min at 1850 deg F in a salt bath promoted additional grain growth at the bond interface during the alpha-to-beta transformation. Barrier layers of graphite. chronaium, iron. molybdenum, nickel, niobium, palladium, and various oxides were investigated to prevent reaction between the UO/sub 2/ core and Zircaloy cladding. Graphite, in the form of a sprayed and buffed coating, and chromium were found to be relatively effective barriers. The graphite coating was easy to apply and less expensive than a chromium electroplate. (auth)},
doi = {10.2172/4200462},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1959},
month = {8}
}