skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Fluorescent ballast and lamp disposal issues

Abstract

All around the world, governments, utility companies, and private businesses are attempting to reduce the amount of energy consumed. In the US alone, new economic strategies and programs are being created to facilitate this process. For instance, the recent enactment of the National Energy Policy Act, the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Green Lights Program, and a surge of utility involvement in Demand Side Management (DSM) Commercial/Industrial Direct Install and Rebate Programs. Many of these problems target commercial/industrial lighting system retrofits as one of the most cost effective avenues for reducing the consumption of energy. Due to this trend, hundreds of millions of lighting ballasts and lamps are being discarded. The benefits of these programs result in enormous reductions in fossil fuels (and subsequent carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions) required to generate the displaced electricity. Throughout the US, however, there is an increasing concern for the environmental impacts surrounding the accelerated disposal of both lighting ballasts and lamps. Regulations initially established were for a one by one, retirement (failure) process rather than promoted obsolescence and forced retirement of lamp groups or entire systems (truckloads of old technologies). Recognizing this trend and the potential negative environmental effects, federal, state,more » and local regulators are reevaluating the impacts and are being asked to promulgate policies to specifically address this situation.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Alta Resource Management Services, Inc., Springfield, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
404362
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Energy Engineering; Journal Volume: 93; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: PBD: 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 29 ENERGY PLANNING AND POLICY; FLUORESCENT LAMPS; WASTE MANAGEMENT; BALLASTS; ENERGY EFFICIENCY; LIGHTING SYSTEMS; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; POLLUTION REGULATIONS

Citation Formats

Leishman, D.L. Fluorescent ballast and lamp disposal issues. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
Leishman, D.L. Fluorescent ballast and lamp disposal issues. United States.
Leishman, D.L. Sun . "Fluorescent ballast and lamp disposal issues". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_404362,
title = {Fluorescent ballast and lamp disposal issues},
author = {Leishman, D.L.},
abstractNote = {All around the world, governments, utility companies, and private businesses are attempting to reduce the amount of energy consumed. In the US alone, new economic strategies and programs are being created to facilitate this process. For instance, the recent enactment of the National Energy Policy Act, the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Green Lights Program, and a surge of utility involvement in Demand Side Management (DSM) Commercial/Industrial Direct Install and Rebate Programs. Many of these problems target commercial/industrial lighting system retrofits as one of the most cost effective avenues for reducing the consumption of energy. Due to this trend, hundreds of millions of lighting ballasts and lamps are being discarded. The benefits of these programs result in enormous reductions in fossil fuels (and subsequent carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions) required to generate the displaced electricity. Throughout the US, however, there is an increasing concern for the environmental impacts surrounding the accelerated disposal of both lighting ballasts and lamps. Regulations initially established were for a one by one, retirement (failure) process rather than promoted obsolescence and forced retirement of lamp groups or entire systems (truckloads of old technologies). Recognizing this trend and the potential negative environmental effects, federal, state, and local regulators are reevaluating the impacts and are being asked to promulgate policies to specifically address this situation.},
doi = {},
journal = {Energy Engineering},
number = 4,
volume = 93,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 1996},
month = {Sun Dec 01 00:00:00 EST 1996}
}
  • All around the world, governments, utility companies, and private businesses are attempting to reduce the amount of energy consumed. In the United States alone, new economic strategies and programs are being created to facilitate this process. For instance, the recent enactment of the National Energy Policy Act, the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Green Lights Program, and a surge of utility involvement in Demand Side Management (DSM) Commercial/Industrial Direct Install and Rebate Programs. Many of these programs target Commercial/Industrial lighting system retrofits as one of the most cost effective avenues for reducing the consumption of energy. Due to this trend, hundredsmore » of millions of lighting ballasts and lamps are being pulled out of existing buildings and discarded. The benefits of these programs result in enormous reductions in fossil fuels (and subsequent carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions) required to generate the displaced electricity. Throughout the United States, however, there is an increasing concern for the environmental impacts surrounding the accelerated disposal of both lighting ballasts and lamps. Regulations initially established were for a {open_quotes}one by one,{close_quotes} retirement (failure) process rather than promoted obsolescence and forced retirement of lamp groups or entire systems (truckloads of old technologies). Recognizing this trend and the potential negative environmental effects federal state, and local regulators are in the process of reevaluating the impacts and are being asked to promulgate policies to specifically address this situation. While it is anticipated that regulations pertaining to PCB ballasts will become better focused, the regulations regarding fluorescent lamps are, really, yet to be finalized. As interested and involved parties continue to become more aware of all the impacts, we can expect clearer direction.« less
  • The rapid growth in the use of electronic ballasts for fluorescent lighting systems, and the corresponding increase in the number of new products and new manufacturers in the market, has raised a number of questions regarding the compatibility of the lamps and ballasts used in fluorescent systems. Because many of the new products start and operate lamps differently than previous products, the relevant American National Standards Institute requirements may no longer be adequate for addressing compatibility concerns. The impacts on system performance of the newer products of a parametric study designed to test key hypotheses regarding the impact of ballastmore » parameters on fluorescent lamp life. In this study, samples of 4-ft T8 fluorescent lamps were operated on duty cycles of 5 min on and 5 min off, using seven different ballast types. The results of the study indicate which parameters seem to have the biggest effect on lamp life, and can be used in establishing new performance standards for fluorescent systems.« less
  • Fluorescent lamps belong to the electric discharge lamp family, they convert the electrical energy into light by transforming electrical energy into kinetic energy of moving electrons and ions. The v{sub a}/i characteristic for an arc discharge lamp operating at 60Hz is nonlinear, Fig. 2a. The instantaneous power developed by the arc is p = v{sub a}i. The arc voltage v{sub a} remains nearly constant during each half-cycle of the current, Fig. 2b. The value V{sub a} depends on the lamp geometry (length, diameter) and the physical properties of the plasma (type of gas and pressure). This paper explains the lightmore » flicker mechanism in fluorescent lamps with magnetic ballast. The light flicker is caused by the jitter of the ignition angle. Voltage noninteger harmonics are found to be the main cause of flicker. Experimental oscillograms confirm the analytical model.« less
  • A new fluorescent lamp and ballast system has been developed which minimizes system input power while maintaining light output close to values provided by conventional lamps and ballasts. The 28-WT-12 lamp designed for the new system utilizes a redesigned electrode structure which allows the lamp to be started in the rapid start manner but operated in an instant start mode to maximize the discharge efficacy (lumens/watt) while reducing lamp cathode power requirements. A matching two-lamp ballast incorporates a solid-state switching device to turn off the cathode heating circuit automatically once the lamps have started. Both lamps and ballasts are physicallymore » interchangeable with conventional equipment so that existing luminaires can be converted without luminaire, lampholder, and wiring modifications. This new lamp/ballast system can achieve efficacy values exceeding 80 lm/W--more than 25 percent better than the performance of conventional fluorescent systems of the early 1970's-along with the excellent life and reliability characteristics typical of electromagnetically ballasted systems. Economic analyses indicate that the new system is appropriate for many new commercial general lighting installations, although it is particularly suitable as a retrofit system for installations where power reductions are essential but where conversion costs must be minimized and illumination levels preserved.« less
  • This panel discussion looked at the present state of problems related to the disposal of fluorescent lamps and ballasts. EPA has not issued a ruling defining what is to be done, and as a result different areas of the country, and different users are treating the products differently. The authors review the history of the problem, where the environmental concerns are, possible alternatives for disposal, be it landfill, recycling, incineration, or treatment as hazardous wastes, and policy concerns with regard to this issue.