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Title: Single stage to orbit mass budgets derived from propellant density and specific impulse

Abstract

The trade between specific impulse (Isp) and density is examined in view of Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) requirements. Mass allocations for vehicle hardware are derived from these two properties, for several propellant combinations and a dual-fuel case. This comparative analysis, based on flight-proven hardware, indicates that the higher density of several alternative propellants compensates for reduced Isp, when compared with cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Approximately half the orbiting mass of a rocket- propelled SSTO vehicle must be allocated to propulsion hardware and residuals. Using hydrogen as the only fuel requires a slightly greater fraction of orbiting mass for propulsion, because hydrogen engines and tanks are heavier than those for denser fuels. The advantage of burning both a dense fuel and hydrogen in succession depends strongly on tripropellant engine weight. The implications of the calculations for SSTO vehicle design are discussed, especially with regard to the necessity to minimize non-tankage structure.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
379977
Report Number(s):
UCRL-JC-122419; CONF-960717-2
ON: DE96012015
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 32. AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE joint propulsion conference and exhibit, Orlando, FL (United States), 1-3 Jul 1996; Other Information: PBD: 6 Jun 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; PROPELLANTS; DENSITY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; ROCKETS; SPACE VEHICLES; HYDROGEN FUELS; PROPULSION SYSTEMS; PROPULSION; MASS; HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; KEROSENE; ROCKET ENGINES; OXYGEN; CRYOGENIC FLUIDS

Citation Formats

Whitehead, J.C. Single stage to orbit mass budgets derived from propellant density and specific impulse. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
Whitehead, J.C. Single stage to orbit mass budgets derived from propellant density and specific impulse. United States.
Whitehead, J.C. Thu . "Single stage to orbit mass budgets derived from propellant density and specific impulse". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/379977.
@article{osti_379977,
title = {Single stage to orbit mass budgets derived from propellant density and specific impulse},
author = {Whitehead, J.C.},
abstractNote = {The trade between specific impulse (Isp) and density is examined in view of Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) requirements. Mass allocations for vehicle hardware are derived from these two properties, for several propellant combinations and a dual-fuel case. This comparative analysis, based on flight-proven hardware, indicates that the higher density of several alternative propellants compensates for reduced Isp, when compared with cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Approximately half the orbiting mass of a rocket- propelled SSTO vehicle must be allocated to propulsion hardware and residuals. Using hydrogen as the only fuel requires a slightly greater fraction of orbiting mass for propulsion, because hydrogen engines and tanks are heavier than those for denser fuels. The advantage of burning both a dense fuel and hydrogen in succession depends strongly on tripropellant engine weight. The implications of the calculations for SSTO vehicle design are discussed, especially with regard to the necessity to minimize non-tankage structure.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1996},
month = {6}
}

Conference:
Other availability
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