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Title: Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures

Abstract

This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic field radiation model. Electromagnetic fields calculated by the proposed model, based on the observed lightning current at the CN Tower, agree well with the observed fields at 2km north of the tower.

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2];  [3];  [4];
  1. CRIEPI, Tokyo (Japan)
  2. Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
  3. Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
  4. McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
372254
Report Number(s):
CONF-960111-
Journal ID: ITPDE5; ISSN 0885-8977; TRN: IM9641%%331
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery; Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 3; Conference: IEEE Power Engineering Society (PES) Winter meeting, Baltimore, MD (United States), 21-25 Jan 1996; Other Information: PBD: Jul 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; LIGHTNING; ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS; MECHANICAL STRUCTURES; FIELD TESTS; TRANSIENTS

Citation Formats

Motoyama, H., Janischewskyj, W., Hussein, A.M., Chisholm, W.A., Chang, J.S., and Rusan, R. Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures. United States: N. p., 1996. Web. doi:10.1109/61.517526.
Motoyama, H., Janischewskyj, W., Hussein, A.M., Chisholm, W.A., Chang, J.S., & Rusan, R. Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures. United States. doi:10.1109/61.517526.
Motoyama, H., Janischewskyj, W., Hussein, A.M., Chisholm, W.A., Chang, J.S., and Rusan, R. 1996. "Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures". United States. doi:10.1109/61.517526.
@article{osti_372254,
title = {Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures},
author = {Motoyama, H. and Janischewskyj, W. and Hussein, A.M. and Chisholm, W.A. and Chang, J.S. and Rusan, R.},
abstractNote = {This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic field radiation model. Electromagnetic fields calculated by the proposed model, based on the observed lightning current at the CN Tower, agree well with the observed fields at 2km north of the tower.},
doi = {10.1109/61.517526},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery},
number = 3,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = 1996,
month = 7
}
  • The nature of lightning striking tall structures on Japan sea coast in winter has been observed with automatically triggered camera and current measurements. The frequency of winter lightning striking tall structures is much higher than that of summer lightning and it increases proportionally to the height of structures. Sometimes lightning strikes simultaneously to multiple tall structures. Statistics of the striking frequency, striking angle and the leader length of the lightning discharge are presented.
  • The paper generalizes a recent physical approach to assess negative downward lightning incidence to apply to tall masts and hilly regions. Criteria for occurrence of an upward flash from a tall structure under negative cloud are formulated, both for flat and hilly terrain. Finally the effect of structure on statistical stroke current distribution is analytically investigated. Extensive computer investigation to apply the theory as well as comparison with field observations are reported in a companion paper.
  • The present paper comprises an extensive computer investigation of lightning incidence to tall masts, based on a theory presented in a companion paper, for both flat and hilly regions. The investigation covers both downward negative lightning incidence and upward flash from tall masts under negative cloud. The factors investigated include: mast height, statistical distribution of the ground electric field, as well as mountain height and topology. Predicted lightning incidence and probability of upward flash are successfully verified against extensive field observations.
  • Average energy spectral densities are presented for the fast transitions in most of the components that produce large radiation field impulses from cloud-to-ground lightning; first and subsequent return strokes; stepped, dart-stepped, and 'chaotic' leaders; and 'characteristic' cloud pulses. A disagreement in the previous literature about the spectral energy radiated by return strokes at high frequencies is noted and explained. The authors show that the spectral amplitudes are not seriously distorted by propagation over less than 35 km of seawater, although as much as 45 km of such propagation does appear to produce significant attenuation above about 10 MHz. First andmore » subsequent return strokes produce identical spectra between 0.2 and 20 MHz. The spectra of stepped and dart-stepped leader steps are nearly identical and are very similar to that of characteristic pulses. The spectra of leader steps also match return stroke spectra above 2-3 MHz after the former are increased by about 7 dB. The shapes of individual spectra do not depend on their amplitude, so the shapes of the average spectra are probably not distorted by the trigger thresholds used in the data acquisition. Return strokes are the strongest sources of radiation from cloud-to-ground lightning in the 0.2- to 20-MHz frequency range, although certain intracloud processes are stronger radiators above 8 MHz.« less