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Title: Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

Abstract

The US Naval Academy (USNA) has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the high temperature requirements necessary for high system efficiency. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Knolls Atomic Power Lab., Schenectady, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
350892
Report Number(s):
KAPL-P-000029; K-95087; CONF-950729-
ON: DE99002682; TRN: AHC29921%%77
DOE Contract Number:
AC12-76SN00052
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 30. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference, Orlando, FL (United States), 30 Jul - 5 Aug 1995; Other Information: PBD: Jul 1995
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 03 NATURAL GAS; THERMOPHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERTERS; THERMOPHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERSION; METHANE; PHOTON EMISSION; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DESIGN

Citation Formats

McHenry, R.S. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system. United States: N. p., 1995. Web.
McHenry, R.S. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system. United States.
McHenry, R.S. 1995. "Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/350892.
@article{osti_350892,
title = {Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system},
author = {McHenry, R.S.},
abstractNote = {The US Naval Academy (USNA) has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the high temperature requirements necessary for high system efficiency. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1995,
month = 7
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

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  • The United States Naval Academy, under interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The design was constrained by the physical geometry and photovoltaic cell type of the DOE TPV generator so that a cylindrical emitter at 1,756 K (2,700 F) was dictated. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill themore » DOE requirements. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design. The concept of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion dates to the 1960s and has been the subject of broad research effort. This is a direct energy conversion process that converts thermal energy into electricity with only photonic coupling. The process offers high theoretical efficiency, versatile application as a primary or secondary power cycle, and a number of operational advantages resulting from the lack of a working substance or moving parts.« less
  • At the NASA Lewis Research Center the authors have developed a systems model for a general thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system. The components included in the model are a solar concentrator, receiver, emitter, window, filter and photovoltaic (PV) array. The system model requires the concentrator and receiver efficiencies, the wavelength dependence of the optical properties of the components, together with the emitter temperature, and the PV cell spectral response and current-voltage characteristic. With these inputs, the system efficiency and power output are calculated. For a selective emitter TPV system it is the emitter spectral emittance that is the major determinant of systemmore » performance. The selective emitter model is characterized by four distinct emittances: the spectral emittance within a single relatively narrow emission band, much lower emittances on either side of this band, and a long-wavelength-limit emittance. The PV cell model is ideal in that it assumes a quantum efficiency of one. The authors also assume that the selective emitter is perfectly coupled to the PV cell--the photon energy of the radiation leaving the selective emitter is just greater than the bandgap energy of the PV cell, so that the cells will operate with maximum efficiency. In this paper, the authors present results of an optimization study of a selective emitter TPV system. They vary the emitter temperature, the spectral emittances and emission bandwidth of the emitter, the PV cell bandgap energy, the cell back-surface reflectivity, and the long-wavelength emission band limit of the emitter, and discuss the effects that the variation of each of these parameters has on system performance.« less
  • This paper deals with conversions of solar energy efficiently into electricity and into gas laser radiation. In the first section, a review study of the possibility of a solar-electric thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device has been done. In a proposed extension of the TPV concept, a Cassagranian optical system concentrates solar radiation to heat a blackbody cavity to 2400/sup 0/K. A double-layer solar cell, GaAs and Si, forming the cylindrical surface concentric to the blackbody cavity, receives the blackbody radiation and converts it into electricity efficiently. A cell conversion efficiency of 50% or more would be possible with the TPV system. Themore » second section explores the concept of blackbody radiation pumping of gas laser media as a step toward utilization of solar energy as a laser pumping source. To demonstrate this concept, an experiment was performed in which various gas mixtures of CO/sub 2/ and He were exposed to 1500/sup 0/K thermal radiation for brief periods of time. A gain coefficient of 2.8 x 10/sup -3/cm/sup -1/ has been measured at 10.6..mu.. and 1 Torr of pressure. At 2 Torr and 0.5 Torr, the measured optical gain is less than that at 1 Torr. A simple analytical model was used to describe the rate of change of energy distribution of the vibrational modes of CO/sub 2/ and to predict the gain. There is a good agreement between prediction and experiment.« less
  • Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power systems are being considered for long duration space missions due to their predicted high thermal to electrical conversion efficiencies. One critical aspect of these power systems is the selection of an appropriate emitter material which will efficiently radiate the thermal energy generated by the heat source to the photovoltaics. The photovoltaics are {open_quotes}tuned{close_quotes} to convert the infrared wavelengths radiated by the emitter into electrical energy. The emphasis of this paper is on the selection and optimization of an appropriate emitter material which would meet all of the mission requirements. A Kepner Tregoe analysis was performed inmore » order to rank the various candidate refractory materials in relationship to their physical and chemical properties. The results of the analysis and material recommendations are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less
  • This US Naval Academy project involves the development of a prototype thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator that uses a General Electric T-58 helicopter gas turbine as the heat source. The goals of this project were to demonstrate the viability of using TPV and external combustion gases to generate electricity, and develop a system which could also be used for materials testing. The generator was modularly designed so that different materials could be tested at a later date. The combustion gas was tapped from the T-58`s combustor through one of the two igniter ports and extracted through a silicon carbide matrix ceramic compositemore » tube into a similarly constructed ceramic composite radiant emitter. The ceramic radiant emitters is heated by the combustion gas via convection, and then serves the TPV generator by radiating the heat outwards where it can be absorbed by thermophotovoltaic cells and converted directly into electricity. The gas turbine and generator module are monitored by a data acquisition system that performs both data collection and control functions. This paper details the design of the TPV generator. It also gives results of initial tests with the gas turbine.« less