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Title: Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report

Abstract

Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded by digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth ofmore » explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
European Office of Aerospace Research and Development, FPO New York, NY (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
350562
Report Number(s):
AD-A-359543/XAB
CNN: Contract F61708-94-W-0750; TRN: 91170720
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 11 Nov 1995
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
35 ARMS CONTROL; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; ARMENIA; AZERBAIJAN; BELARUS; ESTONIA; KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; LATVIA; LITHUANIA; MOLDOVA; REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA; RUSSIAN FEDERATION; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; UKRAINE; UZBEKISTAN; NUCLEAR EXPLOSION DETECTION; VERIFICATION; UNDERGROUND EXPLOSIONS; SEISMIC DETECTION; SEISMIC P WAVES

Citation Formats

Adushkin, V.C. Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report. United States: N. p., 1995. Web.
Adushkin, V.C. Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report. United States.
Adushkin, V.C. Sat . "Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_350562,
title = {Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report},
author = {Adushkin, V.C.},
abstractNote = {Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded by digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth of explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Nov 11 00:00:00 EST 1995},
month = {Sat Nov 11 00:00:00 EST 1995}
}

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  • In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the eastmore » of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.« less
  • Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing ({approx}15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to {approx} 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlationmore » of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m{sub b} = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m{sub b} < 4.0). However, P/S amplitude ratios in the short-period band, 0.5-5.0 Hz, show some scatter. This scatter is primarily due to propagation and site effects, which arise from variability in the elastic and anelastic structure of the crustal waveguide. Preliminary results show that Pg and Lg propagate efficiently in north Siberia at regional distances. The amplitude ratios show some variability between adjacent stations that are modeled by simple distance trends. The effect of topography, sediment and crustal thickness, and upper mantle discontinuities on these ratios, after removal of the distance trends, will be investigated. The travel times of the body wave phases recorded on KEATON have been used to compute the one-dimensional structure of the crust and upper mantle in this region. The path-averaged one-dimensional velocity model was computed by minimizing the first arriving P-phase travel-time residuals for all distances ({Delta} = 300-2300 km). A grid search approach was used in the minimization. The most significant features of this model are the negative lid-gradient and a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle between the depths of 100-200 km; precise location of the LVZ is poorly constrained by the travel time data. We will extend our investigation to additional PNE lines to further investigate the amplitude and travel-time variations in eastern and central Eurasia. Finally, the dense station spacing of the PNE profiles allows us to model the spatial correlation of travel times and amplitude ratios through variogram modeling. The statistical analysis suggests that the correlation lengths of the travel-time and amplitude measurements are 12{sup o} and 10{sup o}, respectively.« less
  • Seismic detection of small, evasively tested underground nuclear explosions remain as a major challenge to effective verification of any eventual CTBT. Most seismic detection research reported to date has focused on analyses of regional seismic signals recorded from explosions at the few known nuclear weapons test sites and, consequently, represent only limited ranges of the source and propagation path conditions of potential monitoring interest. In this study, we analyze regional seismic data recorded at the Borovoye station in Central Asia from a selected group of Soviet PNE tests which sample wider ranges of the source and propagation path variables ofmore » interest. The results of these analyses have indicated that it will in general be difficult to seismically detect low-yield, cavity decoupled nuclear explosions, even with high quality stations at regional distance of 100 or less, and that additional research will be required to optimize the seismic networks and signal processing systems needed to monitor such clandestine tests.« less
  • The likelihood of the use of peaceful nuclear (contained) explosions in future commercial technology is investigated.