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Title: Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles

Abstract

Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximatelymore » 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Hydrogen Association, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
330661
Report Number(s):
CONF-970385-PROC.
ON: DE99001002; TRN: IM9915%%177
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 8. annual U.S. National Hydrogen Association meeting, Alexandria, VA (United States), 11-13 Mar 1997; Other Information: PBD: 1997; Related Information: Is Part Of 8. annual U.S. hydrogen meeting: Proceedings; PB: 546 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; 08 HYDROGEN FUEL; 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; ELECTRIC-POWERED VEHICLES; HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS; HYDROGEN STORAGE; STORAGE FACILITIES; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; FUEL CONSUMPTION; COMPRESSED GASES; LIQUEFACTION; CARBON; HYDRIDES

Citation Formats

James, B.D., Thomas, C.E., Baum, G.N., Lomas, F.D. Jr., and Kuhn, I.F. Jr. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles. United States: N. p., 1997. Web.
James, B.D., Thomas, C.E., Baum, G.N., Lomas, F.D. Jr., & Kuhn, I.F. Jr. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles. United States.
James, B.D., Thomas, C.E., Baum, G.N., Lomas, F.D. Jr., and Kuhn, I.F. Jr. Wed . "Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/330661.
@article{osti_330661,
title = {Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles},
author = {James, B.D. and Thomas, C.E. and Baum, G.N. and Lomas, F.D. Jr. and Kuhn, I.F. Jr.},
abstractNote = {Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1997},
month = {Wed Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1997}
}

Conference:
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  • Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermomore » Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.« less
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  • All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic andmore » heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.« less
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