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Title: Interactions of Cd and Cu in anaerobic estuarine sediments. 2: Bioavailability, body burdens and respiration effects as related to geochemical partitioning

Abstract

The relationship between Cd and Cu distribution in sediment geochemical fractions and their bioavailability was studied. A fine-sandy textured estuarine sediment was treated with all combinations of 0, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg Cd and 0, 12, and 25 mg/kg Cu using the chloride salts of each metal. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), and hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) were exposed to the treated sediments in aquaria with 20 ppt artificial seawater for 14 d. Sediments were sequentially extracted before and after organism exposure to determine the exchangeable, easily reducible, organic-sulfide, moderately reducible, and acid extractable phases. Low mortalities were observed for all organism types and none were attributable to any of the treatments. The Cd and Cu concentrations in the easily reducible and organic-sulfide phases were found to be significantly related to the bioavailability of these metals. The most highly significant relationship was established between Cd in the easily reducible phase and body burden of Cd in the blue mussel. Notable interactions were found between Cd and Cu in some of the geochemical phases, body burdens, and respiration rates. Metal uptake, respiration, and interactions were highly dependent on the test species. A significant correlation was found between increasedmore » body burden and depressed respiration for Cd but not for Cu. Multiple regression models are used to describe these relationships. It appears that the interactive responses in the organisms are driven primarily by the sediment geochemical effects and mediated by individual organism processes. These results underscore the necessity of multicomponent (multielement) studies in assessing the fate and effects of toxic elements in the environment.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
  2. Old Dominion Univ. Research Foundation, Norfolk, VA (United States). Applied Marine Research Lab.
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
268028
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry; Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: PBD: Apr 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; ESTUARIES; WATER POLLUTION; SEDIMENTS; CADMIUM; WATER CHEMISTRY; BIOLOGICAL AVAILABILITY; COPPER; SHRIMP; BIOLOGICAL STRESS; MOLLUSCS; GEOCHEMISTRY; ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS; BIOASSAY; MUSSELS

Citation Formats

Rule, J.H., and Alden, R.W. III. Interactions of Cd and Cu in anaerobic estuarine sediments. 2: Bioavailability, body burdens and respiration effects as related to geochemical partitioning. United States: N. p., 1996. Web. doi:10.1002/etc.5620150409.
Rule, J.H., & Alden, R.W. III. Interactions of Cd and Cu in anaerobic estuarine sediments. 2: Bioavailability, body burdens and respiration effects as related to geochemical partitioning. United States. doi:10.1002/etc.5620150409.
Rule, J.H., and Alden, R.W. III. 1996. "Interactions of Cd and Cu in anaerobic estuarine sediments. 2: Bioavailability, body burdens and respiration effects as related to geochemical partitioning". United States. doi:10.1002/etc.5620150409.
@article{osti_268028,
title = {Interactions of Cd and Cu in anaerobic estuarine sediments. 2: Bioavailability, body burdens and respiration effects as related to geochemical partitioning},
author = {Rule, J.H. and Alden, R.W. III},
abstractNote = {The relationship between Cd and Cu distribution in sediment geochemical fractions and their bioavailability was studied. A fine-sandy textured estuarine sediment was treated with all combinations of 0, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg Cd and 0, 12, and 25 mg/kg Cu using the chloride salts of each metal. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), and hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) were exposed to the treated sediments in aquaria with 20 ppt artificial seawater for 14 d. Sediments were sequentially extracted before and after organism exposure to determine the exchangeable, easily reducible, organic-sulfide, moderately reducible, and acid extractable phases. Low mortalities were observed for all organism types and none were attributable to any of the treatments. The Cd and Cu concentrations in the easily reducible and organic-sulfide phases were found to be significantly related to the bioavailability of these metals. The most highly significant relationship was established between Cd in the easily reducible phase and body burden of Cd in the blue mussel. Notable interactions were found between Cd and Cu in some of the geochemical phases, body burdens, and respiration rates. Metal uptake, respiration, and interactions were highly dependent on the test species. A significant correlation was found between increased body burden and depressed respiration for Cd but not for Cu. Multiple regression models are used to describe these relationships. It appears that the interactive responses in the organisms are driven primarily by the sediment geochemical effects and mediated by individual organism processes. These results underscore the necessity of multicomponent (multielement) studies in assessing the fate and effects of toxic elements in the environment.},
doi = {10.1002/etc.5620150409},
journal = {Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry},
number = 4,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = 1996,
month = 4
}
  • Partitioning of Cd and Cu between geochemical fractions of an anaerobic estuarine sediment was determined after equilibrating fine-sandy sediment with different combinations of added Cd (0, 2.5, 5 mg/kg) and Cu(0, 12.5, 25 mg/kg). Sediments were placed in aquaria with 20 ppt seawater where bioassay test organisms were exposed for 14 d. At the start and conclusion of the experimental period, sediments were sequentially extracted to determine the elemental content of the exchangeable (EP), easily reducible (ERP), organic- sulfide (OSP), moderately reducible (MRP), and acid extractable (AEP) phases. Partitioning of the metals in both the native and treated sediments was,more » for Cd: OSP {much_gt} ERP > AEP > EP (MRP was below detection) and for Cu: OSP {much_gt} AEP > ERP > MRP > EP. Cadmium extracted in all phases and Cu in the EP, RP, and OSP were proportional to the respective treatments. The EP-Cd, ERP-Cd, and OSP-Cd were affected by the Cu treatment and significant interactions occurred between Cd and Cu for the EP-Cd, ERP-Cd, OSP-Cd, EP-Cu, and ERP-Cu. Increasing levels of applied Cd and Cu resulted in greater amounts of EP-Cd and ERP-Cd, fractions that are the most bioavailable and the most readily available for desorption into the water column. A significant conclusion is that the input of nontoxic metals may affect the geochemical phase distribution, potential bioavailability, and toxicity of native sediment metals.« less
  • Sediments, water, and biota of an estuarine system were analyzed for concentrations of lead and nickel. Sediments were sequentially extracted to obtain the different chemically extractable fractions (exchangeable, carbonate bound, Fe/Mn-oxide bound, organically bound, and residual fractions) of these metals. Concentrations of these metals in the soft tissue of an estuarine bivalve Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis were correlated with the concentrations of these metals present in the various sediment fractions, dissolved, and particulate phases in water. The degree of correlation between these various environmental variables and biological factors was considered as the index of bioavailability. Metal concentrations in the softmore » tissue and particulate phase of water were divided by the corresponding concentrations in the dissolved phase in water to obtain the bioconcentration ratio (BCR) and metal partitioning ratio (MPR), respectively. These ratios were found to be useful in quantifying the metal bioavailability. The relationship between other biological factors and environmental variables is also presented and discussed.« less
  • Addition of dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), or methane thiol (MSH) to a diversity of anoxic aquatic sediments (e.g., fresh water, estuarine, alkaline/hypersaline) stimulated methane production. The yield of methane recovered from DMS was often 52 to 63%, although high concentrations of DMS (as well as MSH and DMDS) inhibited methanogenesis in some types of sediments. Production of methane from these reduced methylated sulfur compounds was blocked by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. Sulfate did not influence the metabolism of millimolar levels of DMS, DMDs, or MSH added to sediments. However, when DMS was added at approx.2-3=M levels as (/sup 14/C)DMS, metabolism by sedimentsmore » resulted in a /sup 14/CH/sub 4///sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio of only 0.06. Addition of molybdate increased the ratio of 1.8, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid decreased it to 0, but did not block /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production. These results indicate the methanogens and sulfate reducers compete for DMS when it is present at low concentrations; however, at high concentrations, DMS is a noncompetitive substrate for methanogens. Metabolism of DMS by sediments resulted in the appearance of MSH as a transient intermediate. A pure culture of an obligately methylotrophic estuarine methanogen was isolated which was capable of growth on DMS. Metabolism of DMS by the culture also resulted in the transient appearance of MSH, but the organism could grow on neither MSH nor DMDS. The culture metabolized (/sup 14/C)-DMS to yield a /sup 14/CH/sub 4///sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio of approx. 2.8.« less
  • Reductive dechlorination of the ortho moiety of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as of meta and para moieties is shown to occur in anaerobic enrichments of Baltimore Harbor sediments. These estuarine sediments ortho dechlorinated 2,3,5,6-chlorinated biphenyl (CB), 2,3,5-CB, and 2,3,6-CB in freshwater or estuarine media within a relatively short period of 25 to 44 days. ortho dechlorination developed within 77 days in marine medium. High levels of ortho dechlorination (>90%) occurred when harbor sediments were supplied with only 2,3,5-CB. Incubation with 2,3,4,5,6-CB or 2,3,4,5,-CB resulted in the formation of the ortho dechlorination product 3,5-CB; however, para dechlorination of these congenersmore » always preceded ortho chlorine removal, ortho dechlorination of PCBs is an exceedingly rare event that has not been reported previously for marine or estuarine conditions. The activity was reproducible and could be sustained through sequential transfers. In contrast, freshwater sediments incubated under the same conditions exhibited only meta and para dechlorinations. The results indicate that unique anaerobic dechlorinating activity is catalyzed by microorganisms in the estuarine sediments from Baltimore Harbor. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.« less
  • Acetylene disappeared from the gas phase of anaerobically incubated estuarine sediment slurries, and loss was accompanied by increased levels of carbon dioxide. Acetylene loss was inhibited by chloroamphenicol, air, and autoclaving. Addition of /sup 14/C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ to slurries resulted in the formation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and the transient appearance of /sup 14/C-soluble intermediates, of which acetate was a major component. Acetylene oxidation stimulated sulfate reduction; however, sulfate reduction was not required for the loss of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ to occur. Enrichment cultures were obtained which grew anaerobically at the expense of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/.