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Title: TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: A Framework for the Analytic Calculation of Patient-Specific Dose Distribution Due to CBCT Scan for IGRT

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of an analytic framework to estimate patients’ absorbed dose distribution owing to daily cone-beam CT scan for image-guided radiation treatment. Methods: To compute total absorbed dose distribution, we separated the framework into primary and scattered dose calculations. Using the source parameters such as voltage, current, and bowtie filtration, for the primary dose calculation, we simulated the forward projection from the source to each voxel of an imaging object including some inhomogeneous inserts. Then we calculated the primary absorbed dose at each voxel based on the absorption probability deduced from the HU values and Beer’s law. In sequence, all voxels constructing the phantom were regarded as secondary sources to radiate scattered photons for scattered dose calculation. Details of forward projection were identical to that of the previous step. The secondary source intensities were given by using scatter-to- primary ratios provided by NIST. In addition, we compared the analytically calculated dose distribution with their Monte Carlo simulation results. Results: The suggested framework for absorbed dose estimation successfully provided the primary and secondary dose distributions of the phantom. Moreover, our analytic dose calculations and Monte Carlo calculations were well agreed each other even near the inhomogeneous inserts. Conclusion:more » This work indicated that our framework can be an effective monitor to estimate a patient’s exposure owing to cone-beam CT scan for image-guided radiation treatment. Therefore, we expected that the patient’s over-exposure during IGRT might be prevented by our framework.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2]; ;  [3]; ; ; ;  [4]
  1. Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
  3. Samsung electronics Co., Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)
  4. Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22654048
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ABSORBED RADIATION DOSES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; CAT SCANNING; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS

Citation Formats

Youn, H, Jeon, H, Nam, J, Lee, J, Lee, J, Kim, J, Kim, H, Cho, M, Yun, S, Park, D, Kim, W, Ki, Y, and Kim, D. TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: A Framework for the Analytic Calculation of Patient-Specific Dose Distribution Due to CBCT Scan for IGRT. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957668.
Youn, H, Jeon, H, Nam, J, Lee, J, Lee, J, Kim, J, Kim, H, Cho, M, Yun, S, Park, D, Kim, W, Ki, Y, & Kim, D. TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: A Framework for the Analytic Calculation of Patient-Specific Dose Distribution Due to CBCT Scan for IGRT. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957668.
Youn, H, Jeon, H, Nam, J, Lee, J, Lee, J, Kim, J, Kim, H, Cho, M, Yun, S, Park, D, Kim, W, Ki, Y, and Kim, D. Wed . "TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: A Framework for the Analytic Calculation of Patient-Specific Dose Distribution Due to CBCT Scan for IGRT". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957668.
@article{osti_22654048,
title = {TU-H-CAMPUS-IeP1-05: A Framework for the Analytic Calculation of Patient-Specific Dose Distribution Due to CBCT Scan for IGRT},
author = {Youn, H and Jeon, H and Nam, J and Lee, J and Lee, J and Kim, J and Kim, H and Cho, M and Yun, S and Park, D and Kim, W and Ki, Y and Kim, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of an analytic framework to estimate patients’ absorbed dose distribution owing to daily cone-beam CT scan for image-guided radiation treatment. Methods: To compute total absorbed dose distribution, we separated the framework into primary and scattered dose calculations. Using the source parameters such as voltage, current, and bowtie filtration, for the primary dose calculation, we simulated the forward projection from the source to each voxel of an imaging object including some inhomogeneous inserts. Then we calculated the primary absorbed dose at each voxel based on the absorption probability deduced from the HU values and Beer’s law. In sequence, all voxels constructing the phantom were regarded as secondary sources to radiate scattered photons for scattered dose calculation. Details of forward projection were identical to that of the previous step. The secondary source intensities were given by using scatter-to- primary ratios provided by NIST. In addition, we compared the analytically calculated dose distribution with their Monte Carlo simulation results. Results: The suggested framework for absorbed dose estimation successfully provided the primary and secondary dose distributions of the phantom. Moreover, our analytic dose calculations and Monte Carlo calculations were well agreed each other even near the inhomogeneous inserts. Conclusion: This work indicated that our framework can be an effective monitor to estimate a patient’s exposure owing to cone-beam CT scan for image-guided radiation treatment. Therefore, we expected that the patient’s over-exposure during IGRT might be prevented by our framework.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957668},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: Interventional cardiac procedures utilize frequent fluoroscopy and cineangiography, which impose considerable radiation risk to patients, especially pediatric patients. Accurate calculation of effective dose is important in order to estimate cancer risk over the rest of their lifetime. This study evaluates the difference in effective dose calculated by Monte Carlo simulation with those estimated by locally-derived conversion factors (CF-local) and by commonly quoted conversion factors from Karambatsakidou et al (CF-K). Methods: Effective dose (E),of 12 pediatric patients, age between 2.5–19 years old, who had undergone interventional cardiac procedures, were calculated using PCXMC-2.0 software. Tube spectrum, irradiation geometry, exposure parameters andmore » dose-area product (DAP) of each projection were included in the software calculation. Effective doses for each patient were also estimated by two Methods: 1) CF-local: conversion factor derived locally by generalizing results of 12 patients, multiplied by DAP of each patient gives E-local. 2) CF-K: selected factor from above-mentioned literature, multiplied by DAP of each patient gives E-K. Results: Mean of E, E-local and E-K were 16.01 mSv, 16.80 mSv and 22.25 mSv respectively. A deviation of −29.35% to +34.85% between E and E-local, while a greater deviation of −28.96% to +60.86% between E and EK were observed. E-K overestimated the effective dose for patients at age 7.5–19. Conclusion: Effective dose obtained by conversion factors is simple and quick to estimate radiation risk of pediatric patients. This study showed that estimation by CF-local may bear an error of 35% when compared with Monte Carlo calculation. If using conversion factors derived by other studies may result in an even greater error, of up to 60%, due to factors that are not catered for in the estimation, including patient size, projection angles, exposure parameters, tube filtration, etc. Users must be aware of these potential inaccuracies when simple conversion method is employed.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined organ dose of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and computed tomography (CT) using a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation on the abdominal intervention. Methods: The organ doses for DSA and CT were obtained with MC simulation and actual measurements using fluorescent-glass dosimeters at 7 abdominal portions in an Alderson-Rando phantom. DSA was performed from three directions: posterior anterior (PA), right anterior oblique (RAO), and left anterior oblique (LAO). The organ dose with MC simulation was compared with actual radiation dose measurements. Calculations for the MC simulation were carried out with themore » GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) software based on the EGSnrc MC code. Finally, the combined organ dose for DSA and CT was calculated from the MC simulation using the X-ray conditions of a patient with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results: For DSA from the PA direction, the organ doses for the actual measurements and MC simulation were 2.2 and 2.4 mGy/100 mAs at the liver, respectively, and 3.0 and 3.1 mGy/100 mAs at the spinal cord, while for CT, the organ doses were 15.2 and 15.1 mGy/100 mAs at the liver, and 14.6 and 13.5 mGy/100 mAs at the spinal cord. The maximum difference in organ dose between the actual measurements and the MC simulation was 11.0% of the spleen at PA, 8.2% of the spinal cord at RAO, and 6.1% of left kidney at LAO with DSA and 9.3% of the stomach with CT. The combined organ dose (4 DSAs and 6 CT scans) with the use of actual patient conditions was found to be 197.4 mGy for the liver and 205.1 mGy for the spinal cord. Conclusion: Our method makes it possible to accurately assess the organ dose to patients for abdominal intervention with combined DSA and CT.« less
  • Purpose: The introduction of the MRI-linac in radiotherapy brings MRI-guided treatment with daily plan adaptions within reach. This paradigm demands on-line QA. With its ability to perform continuous volumetric imaging in an outstanding soft-tissue contrast, the MRI- linac promises to elucidate the dose deposition process during a treatment session. Here we study for a prostate case how dynamic MRI combined with linac machine parameters and a fast dose-engine can be used for on-line dose accumulation. Methods: Prostate imaging was performed in healthy volunteer on a 1.5T MR-scanner (Philips, Best, NL) according to a clinical MR-sim protocol, followed by 10min ofmore » dynamic imaging (FLASH, 4s/volume, FOV 40×40×12cm{sup 3}, voxels 3×3×3mm{sup 3}, TR/TE/α=3.5ms/1.7ms/5°). An experienced radiation oncologist made delineations, considering the prostate CTV. Planning was performed on a two-compartment pseudoCT (air/water density) according to clinical constraints (77Gy in PTV) using a Monte-Carlo (MC) based TPS that accounts for magnetic fields. Delivery of one fraction (2.2Gy) was simulated on an emulator for the Axesse linac (Elekta, Stockholm, SE). Machine parameters (MLC settings, gantry angle, dose rate, etc.) were recorded at 25Hz. These were re-grouped per dynamic volume and fed into the MC-engine to calculate a dose delivered for each of the dynamics. Deformations derived from non-rigid registration of each dynamic against the first allowed dose accumulation on a common reference grid. Results: The DVH parameters on the PTV compared to the optimized plan showed little changes. Local deformations however resulted in local deviations, primarily around the air/rectum interface. This clearly indicates the potential of intra-fraction adaptations based on the accumulated dose. Application in each fraction helps to track the influence of plan adaptations to the eventual dose distribution. Calculation times were about twice the delivery time. Conclusion: The current Result paves the way to perform on-line treatment delivery QA on the MRI-linac in the near future.« less
  • Purpose: To compare PCXMC and EGSnrc calculated organ and effective radiation doses from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and interventional fluoroscopically-guided procedures using automatic exposure-event grouping. Methods: For CBCT, we used PCXMC20Rotation.exe to automatically calculate the doses and compared the results to those calculated using EGSnrc with the Zubal patient phantom. For interventional procedures, we use the dose tracking system (DTS) which we previously developed to produce a log file of all geometry and exposure parameters for every x-ray pulse during a procedure, and the data in the log file is input into PCXMC and EGSnrc for dose calculation. A MATLABmore » program reads data from the log files and groups similar exposures to reduce calculation time. The definition files are then automatically generated in the format used by PCXMC and EGSnrc. Processing is done at the end of the procedure after all exposures are completed. Results: For the Toshiba Infinix CBCT LCI-Middle-Abdominal protocol, most organ doses calculated with PCXMC20Rotation closely matched those calculated with EGSnrc. The effective doses were 33.77 mSv with PCXMC20Rotation and 32.46 mSv with EGSnrc. For a simulated interventional cardiac procedure, similar close agreement in organ dose was obtained between the two codes; the effective doses were 12.02 mSv with PCXMC and 11.35 mSv with EGSnrc. The calculations can be completed on a PC without manual intervention in less than 15 minutes with PCXMC and in about 10 hours with EGSnrc, depending on the level of data grouping and accuracy desired. Conclusion: Effective dose and most organ doses in CBCT and interventional radiology calculated by PCXMC closely match those calculated by EGSnrc. Data grouping, which can be done automatically, makes the calculation time with PCXMC on a standard PC acceptable. This capability expands the dose information that can be provided by the DTS. Partial support from NIH Grant R01-EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.« less
  • Purpose: To develop a CBCT HU correction method using a patient specific HU to mass density conversion curve based on a novel image registration and organ mapping method for head-and-neck radiation therapy. Methods: There are three steps to generate a patient specific CBCT HU to mass density conversion curve. First, we developed a novel robust image registration method based on sparseness analysis to register the planning CT (PCT) and the CBCT. Second, a novel organ mapping method was developed to transfer the organs at risk (OAR) contours from the PCT to the CBCT and corresponding mean HU values of eachmore » OAR were measured in both the PCT and CBCT volumes. Third, a set of PCT and CBCT HU to mass density conversion curves were created based on the mean HU values of OARs and the corresponding mass density of the OAR in the PCT. Then, we compared our proposed conversion curve with the traditional Catphan phantom based CBCT HU to mass density calibration curve. Both curves were input into the treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculation. Last, the PTV and OAR doses, DVH and dose distributions of CBCT plans are compared to the original treatment plan. Results: One head-and-neck cases which contained a pair of PCT and CBCT was used. The dose differences between the PCT and CBCT plans using the proposed method are −1.33% for the mean PTV, 0.06% for PTV D95%, and −0.56% for the left neck. The dose differences between plans of PCT and CBCT corrected using the CATPhan based method are −4.39% for mean PTV, 4.07% for PTV D95%, and −2.01% for the left neck. Conclusion: The proposed CBCT HU correction method achieves better agreement with the original treatment plan compared to the traditional CATPhan based calibration method.« less