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Title: SU-G-JeP3-05: Geometry Based Transperineal Ultrasound Probe Positioning for Image Guided Radiotherapy

Abstract

Purpose: The use of ultrasound (US) imaging in radiotherapy is not widespread, primarily due to the need for skilled operators performing the scans. Automation of probe positioning has the potential to remove this need and minimize operator dependence. We introduce an algorithm for obtaining a US probe position that allows good anatomical structure visualization based on clinical requirements. The first application is on 4D transperineal US images of prostate cancer patients. Methods: The algorithm calculates the probe position and orientation using anatomical information provided by a reference CT scan, always available in radiotherapy workflows. As initial test, we apply the algorithm on a CIRS pelvic US phantom to obtain a set of possible probe positions. Subsequently, five of these positions are randomly chosen and used to acquire actual US volumes of the phantom. Visual inspection of these volumes reveal if the whole prostate, and adjacent edges of bladder and rectum are fully visualized, as clinically required. In addition, structure positions on the acquired US volumes are compared to predictions of the algorithm. Results: All acquired volumes fulfill the clinical requirements as specified in the previous section. Preliminary quantitative evaluation was performed on thirty consecutive slices of two volumes, on whichmore » the structures are easily recognizable. The mean absolute distances (MAD) between actual anatomical structure positions and positions predicted by the algorithm were calculated. This resulted in MAD of 2.4±0.4 mm for prostate, 3.2±0.9 mm for bladder and 3.3±1.3 mm for rectum. Conclusion: Visual inspection and quantitative evaluation show that the algorithm is able to propose probe positions that fulfill all clinical requirements. The obtained MAD is on average 2.9 mm. However, during evaluation we assumed no errors in structure segmentation and probe positioning. In future steps, accurate estimation of these errors will allow for better evaluation of the achieved accuracy.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. University of Technology Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)
  2. Maastro Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands)
  3. Philips Research, Eindhoven (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649412
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ALGORITHMS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; POSITIONING; PROBES; PROSTATE; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Camps, S, With, P de, Verhaegen, F, and Fontanarosa, D. SU-G-JeP3-05: Geometry Based Transperineal Ultrasound Probe Positioning for Image Guided Radiotherapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957070.
Camps, S, With, P de, Verhaegen, F, & Fontanarosa, D. SU-G-JeP3-05: Geometry Based Transperineal Ultrasound Probe Positioning for Image Guided Radiotherapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957070.
Camps, S, With, P de, Verhaegen, F, and Fontanarosa, D. 2016. "SU-G-JeP3-05: Geometry Based Transperineal Ultrasound Probe Positioning for Image Guided Radiotherapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957070.
@article{osti_22649412,
title = {SU-G-JeP3-05: Geometry Based Transperineal Ultrasound Probe Positioning for Image Guided Radiotherapy},
author = {Camps, S and With, P de and Verhaegen, F and Fontanarosa, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The use of ultrasound (US) imaging in radiotherapy is not widespread, primarily due to the need for skilled operators performing the scans. Automation of probe positioning has the potential to remove this need and minimize operator dependence. We introduce an algorithm for obtaining a US probe position that allows good anatomical structure visualization based on clinical requirements. The first application is on 4D transperineal US images of prostate cancer patients. Methods: The algorithm calculates the probe position and orientation using anatomical information provided by a reference CT scan, always available in radiotherapy workflows. As initial test, we apply the algorithm on a CIRS pelvic US phantom to obtain a set of possible probe positions. Subsequently, five of these positions are randomly chosen and used to acquire actual US volumes of the phantom. Visual inspection of these volumes reveal if the whole prostate, and adjacent edges of bladder and rectum are fully visualized, as clinically required. In addition, structure positions on the acquired US volumes are compared to predictions of the algorithm. Results: All acquired volumes fulfill the clinical requirements as specified in the previous section. Preliminary quantitative evaluation was performed on thirty consecutive slices of two volumes, on which the structures are easily recognizable. The mean absolute distances (MAD) between actual anatomical structure positions and positions predicted by the algorithm were calculated. This resulted in MAD of 2.4±0.4 mm for prostate, 3.2±0.9 mm for bladder and 3.3±1.3 mm for rectum. Conclusion: Visual inspection and quantitative evaluation show that the algorithm is able to propose probe positions that fulfill all clinical requirements. The obtained MAD is on average 2.9 mm. However, during evaluation we assumed no errors in structure segmentation and probe positioning. In future steps, accurate estimation of these errors will allow for better evaluation of the achieved accuracy.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957070},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To investigate quantitatively positioning and dosimetric uncertainties due to 4D-CT intra-phase motion in the internal-target-volume (ITV) associated with radiation therapy using respiratory-gating for patients setup with image-guidance-radiation-therapy (IGRT) using free-breathing or average-phase CT-images. Methods: A lung phantom with an embedded tissue-equivalent target is imaged with CT while it is stationary and moving. Four-sets of structures are outlined: (a) the actual target on CT-images of the stationary-target, (b) ITV on CT-images for the free-moving phantom, (c) ITV’s from the ten different phases (10–100%) and (d) ITV on the CT-images generated from combining 3 phases: 40%–50%–60%. The variations in volume, lengthmore » and center-position of the ITV’s and their effects on dosimetry during dose delivery for patients setup with image-guidance are investigated. Results: Intra-phase motion due to breathing affects the volume, center position and length of the ITVs from different respiratory-phases. The ITV’s vary by about 10% from one phase to another. The largest ITV is measured on the free breathing CT images and the smallest is on the stationary CT-images. The ITV lengths vary by about 4mm where it may shrink or elongated depending on the motion-phase. The center position of the ITV varies between the different motion-phases which shifts upto 10mm from the stationary-position which is nearly equal to motion-amplitude. This causes systematic shifts during dose delivery with beam gating using certain phases (40%–50%–60%) for patients setup with IGRT using free-breathing or average-phase CT-images. The dose coverage of the ITV depends on the margins used for treatment-planning-volume where margins larger than the motion-amplitudes are needed to ensure dose coverage of the ITV. Conclusion: Volume, length, and center position of the ITV’s change between the different motion phases. Large systematic shifts are induced by respiratory-gating with ITVs on certain phases when patients are setup with IGRT using free-breathing or average-phase CT-images.« less
  • Purpose: To compare two different ultrasound-based verification systems for prostate alignment during daily external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Prostate displacements were measured prospectively in 40 patients undergoing daily EBRT. Comparison was made between a system based on the cross-modality verification method (CMVM), which uses two different imaging modalities to assess organ motion, and a system based on the intramodality verification method (IMVM), which uses only one imaging modality for such assessment. A total of 217 CMVM and 217 IMVM displacements were collected within a minute of each other. In 10 patients, IMVM displacementsmore » were also compared with those measured by sequential CT scans. Results: Analysis in the paired CMVM and IMVM displacements shows a significant mean difference of 0.9 {+-} 3.3 mm in the lateral and 6.0 {+-} 5.1 mm in the superoinferior directions (p < 0.0001), whereas no significant difference was detected in the anteroposterior direction between the two methods. Comparison of the computed tomography scan and IMVM measured displacements shows no significant difference between the two methods, with mean values of 0.2 {+-} 1.7 mm in the lateral, -0.3 {+-} 1.6 mm in the anteroposterior, and 0.1 {+-} 1.4 mm in the superoinferior directions. Conclusions: A significant systematic difference exists between cross-modality and intramodality methods when assessing prostate alignment during daily EBRT. Because displacements assessed by IMVM are consistent with those assessed by computed tomography scan, a more accurate prostate alignment appears to be obtained when the IMVM method is used.« less
  • Purpose: Current image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) procedure is bonebased patient positioning, followed by subjective manual correction using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). This procedure might cause the misalignment of the patient positioning. Automatic target-based patient positioning systems achieve the better reproducibility of patient setup. Our aim of this study was to develop an automatic target-based patient positioning framework for IGRT with CBCT images in prostate cancer treatment. Methods: Seventy-three CBCT images of 10 patients and 24 planning CT images with digital imaging and communications in medicine for radiotherapy (DICOM-RT) structures were used for this study. Our proposed framework started from themore » generation of probabilistic atlases of bone and prostate from 24 planning CT images and prostate contours, which were made in the treatment planning. Next, the gray-scale histograms of CBCT values within CTV regions in the planning CT images were obtained as the occurrence probability of the CBCT values. Then, CBCT images were registered to the atlases using a rigid registration with mutual information. Finally, prostate regions were estimated by applying the Bayesian inference to CBCT images with the probabilistic atlases and CBCT value occurrence probability. The proposed framework was evaluated by calculating the Euclidean distance of errors between two centroids of prostate regions determined by our method and ground truths of manual delineations by a radiation oncologist and a medical physicist on CBCT images for 10 patients. Results: The average Euclidean distance between the centroids of extracted prostate regions determined by our proposed method and ground truths was 4.4 mm. The average errors for each direction were 1.8 mm in anteroposterior direction, 0.6 mm in lateral direction and 2.1 mm in craniocaudal direction. Conclusion: Our proposed framework based on probabilistic atlases and Bayesian inference might be feasible to automatically determine prostate regions on CBCT images.« less
  • Purpose: To quantify the effect of ultrasound (US) probe beam attenuation for radiation therapy delivered under real-time US image guidance by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: MC models of two Philips US probes, an X6-1 matrix-array transducer and a C5-2 curved-array transducer, were built based on their CT images in the EGSnrc BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes. Due to the metal parts, the probes were scanned in a Tomotherapy machine with a 3.5 MV beam. Mass densities in the probes were assigned based on an electron density calibration phantom consisting of cylinders with mass densities between 0.2–8.0 g/cm{sup 3}.more » Beam attenuation due to the probes was measured in a solid water phantom for a 6 MV and 15 MV 15x15 cm{sup 2} beam delivered on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator. The dose was measured with the PTW-729 ionization chamber array at two depths and compared to MC simulations. The extreme case beam attenuation expected in robotic US image guided radiotherapy for probes in upright position was quantified by means of MC simulations. Results: The 3.5 MV CT number to mass density calibration curve was found to be linear with R{sup 2} > 0.99. The maximum mass densities were 4.6 and 4.2 g/cm{sup 3} in the C5-2 and X6-1 probe, respectively. Gamma analysis of the simulated and measured doses revealed that over 98% of measurement points passed the 3%/3mm criteria for both probes and measurement depths. The extreme attenuation for probes in upright position was found to be 25% and 31% for the C5-2 and X6-1 probe, respectively, for both 6 and 15 MV beams at 10 cm depth. Conclusion: MC models of two US probes used for real-time image guidance during radiotherapy have been built. As a Result, radiotherapy treatment planning with the imaging probes in place can now be performed. J Schlosser is an employee of SoniTrack Systems, Inc. D Hristov has financial interest in SoniTrack Systems, Inc.« less
  • When setting up patients via image-guided positioning for external-beam radiotherapy, one can often determine the rotational corrections needed for optimal alignment, but once measured, they are not always applied. However, in rigid-body setup calculations the optimal translational component of the setup correction will be different depending on whether rotations are included or excluded from the correction procedure. Furthermore, if rotations go uncorrected then the optimal translation becomes dependent on the relative locations of the registration landmarks, the treatment site, and the rotational axes. If one is not going to make rotational adjustments to the patient position, then two guidelines shouldmore » be followed: (1) the registration landmarks should closely demarcate the treatment site, and (2) rotational degrees of freedom should not be included in the calculation of setup adjustments.« less