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Title: SU-G-JeP3-05: Geometry Based Transperineal Ultrasound Probe Positioning for Image Guided Radiotherapy

Abstract

Purpose: The use of ultrasound (US) imaging in radiotherapy is not widespread, primarily due to the need for skilled operators performing the scans. Automation of probe positioning has the potential to remove this need and minimize operator dependence. We introduce an algorithm for obtaining a US probe position that allows good anatomical structure visualization based on clinical requirements. The first application is on 4D transperineal US images of prostate cancer patients. Methods: The algorithm calculates the probe position and orientation using anatomical information provided by a reference CT scan, always available in radiotherapy workflows. As initial test, we apply the algorithm on a CIRS pelvic US phantom to obtain a set of possible probe positions. Subsequently, five of these positions are randomly chosen and used to acquire actual US volumes of the phantom. Visual inspection of these volumes reveal if the whole prostate, and adjacent edges of bladder and rectum are fully visualized, as clinically required. In addition, structure positions on the acquired US volumes are compared to predictions of the algorithm. Results: All acquired volumes fulfill the clinical requirements as specified in the previous section. Preliminary quantitative evaluation was performed on thirty consecutive slices of two volumes, on whichmore » the structures are easily recognizable. The mean absolute distances (MAD) between actual anatomical structure positions and positions predicted by the algorithm were calculated. This resulted in MAD of 2.4±0.4 mm for prostate, 3.2±0.9 mm for bladder and 3.3±1.3 mm for rectum. Conclusion: Visual inspection and quantitative evaluation show that the algorithm is able to propose probe positions that fulfill all clinical requirements. The obtained MAD is on average 2.9 mm. However, during evaluation we assumed no errors in structure segmentation and probe positioning. In future steps, accurate estimation of these errors will allow for better evaluation of the achieved accuracy.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. University of Technology Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)
  2. Maastro Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands)
  3. Philips Research, Eindhoven (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649412
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ALGORITHMS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; POSITIONING; PROBES; PROSTATE; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Camps, S, With, P de, Verhaegen, F, and Fontanarosa, D. SU-G-JeP3-05: Geometry Based Transperineal Ultrasound Probe Positioning for Image Guided Radiotherapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957070.
Camps, S, With, P de, Verhaegen, F, & Fontanarosa, D. SU-G-JeP3-05: Geometry Based Transperineal Ultrasound Probe Positioning for Image Guided Radiotherapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957070.
Camps, S, With, P de, Verhaegen, F, and Fontanarosa, D. Wed . "SU-G-JeP3-05: Geometry Based Transperineal Ultrasound Probe Positioning for Image Guided Radiotherapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957070.
@article{osti_22649412,
title = {SU-G-JeP3-05: Geometry Based Transperineal Ultrasound Probe Positioning for Image Guided Radiotherapy},
author = {Camps, S and With, P de and Verhaegen, F and Fontanarosa, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The use of ultrasound (US) imaging in radiotherapy is not widespread, primarily due to the need for skilled operators performing the scans. Automation of probe positioning has the potential to remove this need and minimize operator dependence. We introduce an algorithm for obtaining a US probe position that allows good anatomical structure visualization based on clinical requirements. The first application is on 4D transperineal US images of prostate cancer patients. Methods: The algorithm calculates the probe position and orientation using anatomical information provided by a reference CT scan, always available in radiotherapy workflows. As initial test, we apply the algorithm on a CIRS pelvic US phantom to obtain a set of possible probe positions. Subsequently, five of these positions are randomly chosen and used to acquire actual US volumes of the phantom. Visual inspection of these volumes reveal if the whole prostate, and adjacent edges of bladder and rectum are fully visualized, as clinically required. In addition, structure positions on the acquired US volumes are compared to predictions of the algorithm. Results: All acquired volumes fulfill the clinical requirements as specified in the previous section. Preliminary quantitative evaluation was performed on thirty consecutive slices of two volumes, on which the structures are easily recognizable. The mean absolute distances (MAD) between actual anatomical structure positions and positions predicted by the algorithm were calculated. This resulted in MAD of 2.4±0.4 mm for prostate, 3.2±0.9 mm for bladder and 3.3±1.3 mm for rectum. Conclusion: Visual inspection and quantitative evaluation show that the algorithm is able to propose probe positions that fulfill all clinical requirements. The obtained MAD is on average 2.9 mm. However, during evaluation we assumed no errors in structure segmentation and probe positioning. In future steps, accurate estimation of these errors will allow for better evaluation of the achieved accuracy.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957070},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To investigate quantitatively positioning and dosimetric uncertainties due to 4D-CT intra-phase motion in the internal-target-volume (ITV) associated with radiation therapy using respiratory-gating for patients setup with image-guidance-radiation-therapy (IGRT) using free-breathing or average-phase CT-images. Methods: A lung phantom with an embedded tissue-equivalent target is imaged with CT while it is stationary and moving. Four-sets of structures are outlined: (a) the actual target on CT-images of the stationary-target, (b) ITV on CT-images for the free-moving phantom, (c) ITV’s from the ten different phases (10–100%) and (d) ITV on the CT-images generated from combining 3 phases: 40%–50%–60%. The variations in volume, lengthmore » and center-position of the ITV’s and their effects on dosimetry during dose delivery for patients setup with image-guidance are investigated. Results: Intra-phase motion due to breathing affects the volume, center position and length of the ITVs from different respiratory-phases. The ITV’s vary by about 10% from one phase to another. The largest ITV is measured on the free breathing CT images and the smallest is on the stationary CT-images. The ITV lengths vary by about 4mm where it may shrink or elongated depending on the motion-phase. The center position of the ITV varies between the different motion-phases which shifts upto 10mm from the stationary-position which is nearly equal to motion-amplitude. This causes systematic shifts during dose delivery with beam gating using certain phases (40%–50%–60%) for patients setup with IGRT using free-breathing or average-phase CT-images. The dose coverage of the ITV depends on the margins used for treatment-planning-volume where margins larger than the motion-amplitudes are needed to ensure dose coverage of the ITV. Conclusion: Volume, length, and center position of the ITV’s change between the different motion phases. Large systematic shifts are induced by respiratory-gating with ITVs on certain phases when patients are setup with IGRT using free-breathing or average-phase CT-images.« less
  • Purpose: Ultrasound presents a fast, volumetric image modality for real-time tracking of abdominal organ motion. How-ever, ultrasound transducer placement during radiation therapy is challenging. Recently, approaches using robotic arms for intra-treatment ultrasound imaging have been proposed. Good and reliable imaging requires placing the transducer close to the PTV. We studied the effect of a seven degrees of freedom robot on the fea-sible beam directions. Methods: For five CyberKnife prostate treatment plans we established viewports for the transducer, i.e., points on the patient surface with a soft tissue view towards the PTV. Choosing a feasible transducer pose and using the kinematicmore » redundancy of the KUKA LBR iiwa robot, we considered three robot poses. Poses 1 to 3 had the elbow point anterior, superior, and inferior, respectively. For each pose and each beam starting point, the pro-jections of robot and PTV were computed. We added a 20 mm margin accounting for organ / beam motion. The number of nodes for which the PTV was partially of fully blocked were established. Moreover, the cumula-tive overlap for each of the poses and the minimum overlap over all poses were computed. Results: The fully and partially blocked nodes ranged from 12% to 20% and 13% to 27%, respectively. Typically, pose 3 caused the fewest blocked nodes. The cumulative overlap ranged from 19% to 29%. Taking the minimum overlap, i.e., considering moving the robot’s elbow while maintaining the transducer pose, the cumulative over-lap was reduced to 16% to 18% and was 3% to 6% lower than for the best individual pose. Conclusion: Our results indicate that it is possible to identify feasible ultrasound transducer poses and to use the kinematic redundancy of a 7 DOF robot to minimize the impact of the imaging subsystem on the feasible beam directions for ultrasound guided and motion compensated SBRT. Research partially funded by DFG grants ER 817/1-1 and SCHL 1844/3-1.« less
  • Purpose: Current image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) procedure is bonebased patient positioning, followed by subjective manual correction using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). This procedure might cause the misalignment of the patient positioning. Automatic target-based patient positioning systems achieve the better reproducibility of patient setup. Our aim of this study was to develop an automatic target-based patient positioning framework for IGRT with CBCT images in prostate cancer treatment. Methods: Seventy-three CBCT images of 10 patients and 24 planning CT images with digital imaging and communications in medicine for radiotherapy (DICOM-RT) structures were used for this study. Our proposed framework started from themore » generation of probabilistic atlases of bone and prostate from 24 planning CT images and prostate contours, which were made in the treatment planning. Next, the gray-scale histograms of CBCT values within CTV regions in the planning CT images were obtained as the occurrence probability of the CBCT values. Then, CBCT images were registered to the atlases using a rigid registration with mutual information. Finally, prostate regions were estimated by applying the Bayesian inference to CBCT images with the probabilistic atlases and CBCT value occurrence probability. The proposed framework was evaluated by calculating the Euclidean distance of errors between two centroids of prostate regions determined by our method and ground truths of manual delineations by a radiation oncologist and a medical physicist on CBCT images for 10 patients. Results: The average Euclidean distance between the centroids of extracted prostate regions determined by our proposed method and ground truths was 4.4 mm. The average errors for each direction were 1.8 mm in anteroposterior direction, 0.6 mm in lateral direction and 2.1 mm in craniocaudal direction. Conclusion: Our proposed framework based on probabilistic atlases and Bayesian inference might be feasible to automatically determine prostate regions on CBCT images.« less
  • Purpose: Prostate SABR is emerging as a clinically viable, potentially cost effective alternative to prostate IMRT but its adoption is contingent on providing solutions for accurate tracking during beam delivery. Our goal is to evaluate the performance of the Clarity Autoscan ultrasound monitoring system for inter-fractional prostate motion tracking in both phantoms and in-vivo. Methods: In-vivo evaluation was performed under IRB protocol to allow data collection in prostate patients treated with VMAT whereby prostate was imaged through the acoustic window of the perineum. The probe was placed before KV imaging and real-time tracking was started and continued until the endmore » of treatment. Initial absolute 3D positions of fiducials were estimated from KV images. Fiducial positions in MV images subsequently acquired during beam delivery were compared with predicted positions based on Clarity estimated motion. Results: Phantom studies with motion amplitudes of ±1.5, ±3, ±6 mm in lateral direction and ±2 mm in longitudinal direction resulted in tracking errors of −0.03 ± 0.3, −0.04 ± 0.6, −0.2 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, in lateral direction and −0.05 ± 0.30 mm in longitudinal direction. In phantom, measured and predicted fiducial positions in MV images were within 0.1 ± 0.6 mm. Four patients consented to participate in the study and data was acquired over a total of 140 fractions. MV imaging tracking was possible in about 75% of the time (due to occlusion of fiducials) compared to 100% with Clarity. Overall range of estimated motion by Clarity was 0 to 4.0 mm. In-vivo fiducial localization error was 1.2 ± 1.0 mm compared to 1.8 ± 1.9 mm if not taking Clarity estimated motion into account. Conclusion: Real-time transperineal ultrasound tracking reduces uncertainty in prostate position due to intrafractional motion. Research was supported by Elekta.« less
  • Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of using CBCT in a real-time image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for single fraction heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients after hip replacement. In this real-time procedure, all steps, from simulation, imaging, planning to treatment delivery, are performed at the treatment unit in one appointment time slot. This work promotes real-time treatment to create a paradigm shift in the single fraction radiation therapy. Methods: An integrated real-time IGRT for HO was developed and tested for radiation treatment of heterotopic ossification for patient after hip replacement. After CBCT images are acquired at the linac, and sent tomore » the treatment planning system, the physician determines the field and/or draws a block. Subsequently, a simple 2D AP/PA plan with prescription of 700 cGy is created on-the-fly for physician to review. Once the physician approves the plan, the patient is treated on the same simulation position. This real-time treatment requires the team of attending physician, physicist, therapists, and dosimetrist to work in harmony to achieve all the steps in a timely manner. Results: Ten patients have been treated with this real-time treatment, having the same beams arrangement treatment plan and prescription as our clinically regular CT-based 2D plans. The average time for these procedures are 52.9 ±10.7 minutes from the time patient entered the treatment room until s/he exited, and 37.7 ±8.6 minutes from starting CBCT until last beam delivered. Conclusion: The real-time IGRT for HO treatment has been tested and implemented to be a clinically accepted procedure. This one-time appointment greatly enhances the waiting time, especially when patients in high level of pain, and provides a convenient approach for the whole clinical staff. Other disease sites will be also tested with this new technology.« less