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Title: SU-G-206-06: Analytic Dose Function for CT Scans in Infinite Cylinders as a Function of Scan Length and Cylinder Radius

Abstract

Purpose: The radiation dose absorbed at a particular radius ρ within the central plane of a long cylinder following a CT scan is a function of the length of the scan L and the cylinder radius R along with kVp and cylinder composition. An analytic function was created that that not only expresses these dependencies but is integrable in closed form over the area of the central plane. This feature facilitates explicit calculation of the planar average dose. The “approach to equilibrium” h(L) discussed in the TG111 report is seamlessly included in this function. Methods: For a cylindrically symmetric radiation field, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to compute the dose distribution to long polyethylene cylinders for scans of varying L for cylinders ranging in radius from 5 to 20 cm. The function was developed from the resultant Monte Carlo data. In addition, the function was successfully fit to data taken from measurements on the 30 cm diameter ICRU/TG200 phantom using a real-time dosimeter. Results: Symmetry and continuity dictate a local extremum at the center which is a minimum for the larger sizes. There are competing effects as the beam penetrates the cylinder from the outside: attenuation, resulting in a decrease;more » scatter, abruptly increasing at the circumference. This competition may result in an absolute maximum between the center and outer edge leading to a “gull wing” shape for the radial dependence. For the smallest cylinders, scatter may dominate to the extent that there is an absolute maximum at the center. Conclusion: An integrable, analytic function has been developed that provides the radial dependency of dose for the central plane of a scan of length L for cylinders of varying diameter. Equivalently, we have developed h(L,R,ρ).« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)
  2. New York Presbyterian Hospital, Tenafly, NJ (United States)
  3. Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649310
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATION; LENGTH; MONTE CARLO METHOD; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS

Citation Formats

Bakalyar, D, Feng, W, and McKenney, S. SU-G-206-06: Analytic Dose Function for CT Scans in Infinite Cylinders as a Function of Scan Length and Cylinder Radius. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956947.
Bakalyar, D, Feng, W, & McKenney, S. SU-G-206-06: Analytic Dose Function for CT Scans in Infinite Cylinders as a Function of Scan Length and Cylinder Radius. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956947.
Bakalyar, D, Feng, W, and McKenney, S. 2016. "SU-G-206-06: Analytic Dose Function for CT Scans in Infinite Cylinders as a Function of Scan Length and Cylinder Radius". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956947.
@article{osti_22649310,
title = {SU-G-206-06: Analytic Dose Function for CT Scans in Infinite Cylinders as a Function of Scan Length and Cylinder Radius},
author = {Bakalyar, D and Feng, W and McKenney, S},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The radiation dose absorbed at a particular radius ρ within the central plane of a long cylinder following a CT scan is a function of the length of the scan L and the cylinder radius R along with kVp and cylinder composition. An analytic function was created that that not only expresses these dependencies but is integrable in closed form over the area of the central plane. This feature facilitates explicit calculation of the planar average dose. The “approach to equilibrium” h(L) discussed in the TG111 report is seamlessly included in this function. Methods: For a cylindrically symmetric radiation field, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to compute the dose distribution to long polyethylene cylinders for scans of varying L for cylinders ranging in radius from 5 to 20 cm. The function was developed from the resultant Monte Carlo data. In addition, the function was successfully fit to data taken from measurements on the 30 cm diameter ICRU/TG200 phantom using a real-time dosimeter. Results: Symmetry and continuity dictate a local extremum at the center which is a minimum for the larger sizes. There are competing effects as the beam penetrates the cylinder from the outside: attenuation, resulting in a decrease; scatter, abruptly increasing at the circumference. This competition may result in an absolute maximum between the center and outer edge leading to a “gull wing” shape for the radial dependence. For the smallest cylinders, scatter may dominate to the extent that there is an absolute maximum at the center. Conclusion: An integrable, analytic function has been developed that provides the radial dependency of dose for the central plane of a scan of length L for cylinders of varying diameter. Equivalently, we have developed h(L,R,ρ).},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956947},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: The area-averaged dose in the central plane of a long cylinder following a CT scan depends upon the radial dose distribution and the length of the scan. The ICRU/TG200 phantom, a polyethylene cylinder 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm long, was the subject of this study. The purpose was to develop an analytic function that could determine the dose for a scan length L at any point in the central plane of this phantom. Methods: Monte Carlo calculations were performed on a simulated ICRU/TG200 phantom under conditions of cylindrically symmetric conditions of irradiation. Thus, the radial dose distributionmore » function must be an even function that accounts for two competing effects: The direct beam makes its weakest contribution at the center while the scatter begins abruptly at the outer radius and grows as the center is approached. The scatter contribution also increases with scan length with the increase approaching its limiting value at the periphery faster than along the central axis. An analytic function was developed that fit the data and possessed these features. Results: Symmetry and continuity dictate a local extremum at the center which is a minimum for the ICRU/TG200 phantom. The relative depth of the minimum decreases as the scan length grows and an absolute maximum can occur between the center and outer edge of the cylinders. As the scan length grows, the relative dip in the center decreases so that for very long scan lengths, the dose profile is relatively flat. Conclusion: An analytic function characterizes the radial and scan length dependency of dose for long cylindrical phantoms. The function can be integrated with the results expressed in closed form. One use for this is to help determine average dose distribution over the central cylinder plane for any scan length.« less
  • The angular variations of scattering-matrix elements of coated cylindrical particles are presented. The sensitivity of different elements for a number of physical parameters are discussed, including size parameter, real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of the outer coat, and the inner core. The numerical predictions are presented for typical index-of-refraction values of cotton fibers. These results show that the physical structure of coated cylinders can be determined from carefully conducted light-scattering experiments. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America
  • It is shown that low-order spherical harmonic approximations give poor approximation of the linear extrapolntion length for neutron absorption in cylinders in scattering media, although the disadvantage factor is described fairly weli. More exact equations are derived in terms of the cylindrical blackness. (D. L.C.)
  • Purpose: The knowledge of longitudinal dose distribution provides the most direct view of the accumulated dose in computed tomography (CT) scanning. The purpose of this work was to perform a comprehensive study of dose distribution width and energy absorption with a wide range of subject sizes and beam irradiated lengths. Methods: Cumulative dose distribution along the z-axis was calculated based on the previously published CT dose equilibration data by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 40, 031903 (10pp.) (2013)] and a mechanism for computing dose on axial lines by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 39, 5347–5352 (2012)]. Full widthmore » at half maximum (FWHM), full width at tenth maximum (FWTM), the total energy (E) absorbed in a small cylinder of unit mass per centimeter square about the central or peripheral axis, and the energy (E{sub in}) absorbed inside irradiated length (L) were subsequently extracted from the dose distribution. Results: Extensive results of FWHM, FWTM, and E{sub in}/E were presented on the central and peripheral axes of infinitely long PMMA (diameters 6–50 cm) and water (diameters 6–55 cm) cylinders with L < 100 cm. FWHM was greater than the primary beam width only on the central axes of large phantoms and also with L ranging from a few centimeter to about 33 cm. FWTM generally increased with phantom diameter, and could be up to 32 cm longer than irradiated length, depending on L, phantom diameter and axis, but was insensitive to phantom material (PMMA or water). E{sub in}/E increased with L and asymptotically approached unity for large L. As phantom diameter increased, E{sub in}/E generally decreased, but asymptotically approached constant levels on the peripheral axes of large phantoms. A heuristic explanation of dose distribution width results was presented. Conclusions: This study enables the reader to gain a comprehensive view of dose distribution width and energy absorption and provides useful data for estimating doses to organs inside or beyond the irradiated region. The dose length product (DLP) presented by CT scanners is equal to neither E nor E{sub in}. Both E and E{sub in} can be evaluated using the equations and results presented in this paper and are robust with both constant and variable tube current scanning techniques.« less
  • The usual time interval between the administration of technetium-labeled bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals and imaging varies among nuclear-medical departments. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that the interval could be as short as 2 hr. We have studied overall quality of bone detail in 280 bone scans performed at intervals varying from 2 to 5 hr following injection of technetium-99m diphosphonate. No significant qualitative difference was found between the studies performed at 2 hr and those done at later intervals.