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Title: SU-F-T-593: Technical Treatment Accuracy in a Clinic of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to estimate technical treatment accuracy in fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (fSRS) using extend system (ES) of Gamma Knife (GK). Methods: The fSRS with GK relies on a patient specific re-locatable immobilization system. The reference treatment position is estimated using a digital probe and a repositioning check tool (RCT). The “calibration values” of RCT apertures were compared with measured values on RCT-QA tool to evaluate the standard error (SE) associated with RCT measurements. A treatment plan with single “4 mm collimator shot” was created to deliver a radiation dose of 5 Gy at the predefined plane of a newly designed in-house head-neck phantom. The plan was investigated using radiochromic EBT3 films. The stereotactic CT imaging of a designed mini CT phantom and distortion study of MR imaging, were combined to calculate imaging SE. The focal precision check for GK machine tolerance was performed using a central diode test tool. Results: Twenty observations of RCT and digital probe, shown the SE of +/−0.0186mm and +/−0.0002mm respectively. A mean positional shift of 0.2752mm (σ=0.0696mm) was observed for twenty similar treatment settings of head-neck phantom. The difference between radiological and predefined exposure point was 0.4650mm and 0.4270mm; formore » two independent experiments. The imaging studies showed a combined SE of +/− 0.1055mm. Twenty frequent runs of a diode test tool showed the tolerance SE of +/−0.0096mm. If, the measurements are considered to be at 95% of confidence level, an expanded uncertainty was evaluated as +/− 0.2371mm with our system. The positional shift, when combined with an expanded uncertainty, a trivial variation of 0.07mm (max) was observed in comparing resultant radiological precision through film investigations. Conclusion: The study proposes an expression of “technical treatment accuracy” within “known uncertainties” is rational in the estimation of routine fSRS quality. The research work is supported by the research section of “All India Institute of Medical Sciences” - New Delhi, India under project no A-247.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, Delhi (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649168
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; PHANTOMS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SURGERY

Citation Formats

Bisht, R, Kale, S, Natanasabapathi, G, Singh, M, Agarwal, D, Rath, G, Julka, P, Kumar, P, Thulkar, S, Garg, A, and Sharma, B. SU-F-T-593: Technical Treatment Accuracy in a Clinic of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956778.
Bisht, R, Kale, S, Natanasabapathi, G, Singh, M, Agarwal, D, Rath, G, Julka, P, Kumar, P, Thulkar, S, Garg, A, & Sharma, B. SU-F-T-593: Technical Treatment Accuracy in a Clinic of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956778.
Bisht, R, Kale, S, Natanasabapathi, G, Singh, M, Agarwal, D, Rath, G, Julka, P, Kumar, P, Thulkar, S, Garg, A, and Sharma, B. Wed . "SU-F-T-593: Technical Treatment Accuracy in a Clinic of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956778.
@article{osti_22649168,
title = {SU-F-T-593: Technical Treatment Accuracy in a Clinic of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery},
author = {Bisht, R and Kale, S and Natanasabapathi, G and Singh, M and Agarwal, D and Rath, G and Julka, P and Kumar, P and Thulkar, S and Garg, A and Sharma, B},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The purpose of this study is to estimate technical treatment accuracy in fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (fSRS) using extend system (ES) of Gamma Knife (GK). Methods: The fSRS with GK relies on a patient specific re-locatable immobilization system. The reference treatment position is estimated using a digital probe and a repositioning check tool (RCT). The “calibration values” of RCT apertures were compared with measured values on RCT-QA tool to evaluate the standard error (SE) associated with RCT measurements. A treatment plan with single “4 mm collimator shot” was created to deliver a radiation dose of 5 Gy at the predefined plane of a newly designed in-house head-neck phantom. The plan was investigated using radiochromic EBT3 films. The stereotactic CT imaging of a designed mini CT phantom and distortion study of MR imaging, were combined to calculate imaging SE. The focal precision check for GK machine tolerance was performed using a central diode test tool. Results: Twenty observations of RCT and digital probe, shown the SE of +/−0.0186mm and +/−0.0002mm respectively. A mean positional shift of 0.2752mm (σ=0.0696mm) was observed for twenty similar treatment settings of head-neck phantom. The difference between radiological and predefined exposure point was 0.4650mm and 0.4270mm; for two independent experiments. The imaging studies showed a combined SE of +/− 0.1055mm. Twenty frequent runs of a diode test tool showed the tolerance SE of +/−0.0096mm. If, the measurements are considered to be at 95% of confidence level, an expanded uncertainty was evaluated as +/− 0.2371mm with our system. The positional shift, when combined with an expanded uncertainty, a trivial variation of 0.07mm (max) was observed in comparing resultant radiological precision through film investigations. Conclusion: The study proposes an expression of “technical treatment accuracy” within “known uncertainties” is rational in the estimation of routine fSRS quality. The research work is supported by the research section of “All India Institute of Medical Sciences” - New Delhi, India under project no A-247.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956778},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: SRS is an effective non-invasive alternative treatment modality with minimal-toxicity used to treat patients with medically/surgically refractory trigeminal neuralgia root(TNR) or those who may not tolerate surgical intervention. We present our linac-based SRS procedure for TNR treatment and simultaneously report our clinical outcomes. Methods: Twenty-eight TNR-patients treated with frame-based SRS at our institution (2009–2015) with a single-fraction point-dose of 60-80Gy to TNR were included in this IRB-approved study. Experienced neurosurgeon and radiation oncologist delineated the TNR on 1.0mm thin 3D-FIESTA-MRI that was co-registered with 0.7mm thin planning-CT. Treatment plans were generated in iPlan (BrainLAB) with a 4-mm diameter conemore » using 79 arcs with differential-weighting for Novalis-TX 6MV-SRS(1000MU/min) beam and optimized to minimize brainstem dose. Winston-Lutz test was performed before each treatment delivery with sub-millimeter isocenter accuracy. Quality assurance of frame placement was maintained by helmet-bobble-measurement before simulation-CT and before patient setup at treatment couch. OBI-CBCT scan was performed for patient setup verification without applying shifts. On clinical follow up, treatment response was assessed using Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity Score(BNI-score:I–V). Results: 26/28 TNR-patients (16-males/10-females) who were treated with following single-fraction point-dose to isocenter: 80Gy(n=22),75Gy(n=1),70Gy(n=2) and 60Gy(n=1, re-treatment) were followed up. Median follow-up interval was 8.5-months (ranged:1–48.5months). Median age was 70-yr (ranged:43–93-yr). Right/left TNR ratio was 15/11. Delivered total # of average MUs was 19034±1204. Average beam-on-time: 19.0±1.3min. Brainstem max-dose and dose to 0.5cc were 13.3±2.4Gy (ranged:8.1–16.5Gy) and 3.6±0.4Gy (ranged:3.0–4.9Gy). On average, max-dose to optic-apparatus was ≤1.2Gy. Mean value of max-dose to eyes/lens was 0.26Gy/0.11Gy. Overall, 20-patients (77%) responded to treatment: 5(19%) achieved complete pain relief without medication (BNI score: I); 5(19%) had no-pain, decreased medication (BNI-score:II); 2(7.7%) had no-pain, but, continued medication (BNI-score:IIIA), and 8(30.8%) had pain that was well controlled by medication (BNI-score: IIIB). Six-patients (23.0%) did not respond to treatment (BNI-score:IV–V). Neither cranial nerve deficit nor radio-necrosis of temporal lobe was clinically observed. Conclusion: Linac-based SRS for medically/surgically refractory TNR provided an effective treatment option for pain resolution/control with very minimal if any normal tissue toxicity. Longer follow up of these patients is anticipated/needed to confirm our observations.« less
  • Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective and noninvasive treatment for intracranial lesions that uses highly focused radiation beams in a single treatment fraction. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dosimetric differences between the treatment brain metastasis with a proton beam vs. intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: Ten separate brain metastasis targets where chosen and treatment plans were created for each, using three different strategies: custom proton beam shaping devices, standardized proton beam shaping devices, and IMRT. Each plan was required to satisfy set parameters for providing adequate coverage and minimizing risk to adjacent tissues. The effectivenessmore » of each plan was calculated by comparing the homogeneity index, conformity index, and V12 for each target using a paired one tailed T-test (α=0.05). Specific comparison of the conformity indices was also made using a subcategory containing targets with volume>1cc. Results: There was no significant difference between the homogeneity indices of the three plans (p>0.05), showing that each plan has the capability of adequately covering the targets. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between the conformity indices of the custom and the standard proton plan, as with the custom proton and IMRT (p<0.01), with custom proton showing stronger conformity to the target in both cases. There was also a statistical difference between the V12 of all three plans (Custom v. Standardized: p=0.02, Custom v. IMRT: p<0.01, Standardized v. IMRT: p<0.01) with custom proton supplying the lowest dose to surrounding tissues. For large targets (volume>1cc) there was no statistical difference between the proton plans and the IMRT treatment for the conformity index. Conclusion: A custom proton plan is the recommended treatment explored in this study as it is the most reliable way of effectively treating the target while sparing the maximum amount of normal tissue.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate planning performance of an automated treatment planning software (BrainLAB; Elements) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of multiple brain metastases. Methods: Brainlab’s Multiple Metastases Elements (MME) uses single isocentric technique to treat up to 10 cranial planning target volumes (PTVs). The planning algorithm of the MME accounts for multiple PTVs overlapping with one another on the beam eyes view (BEV) and automatically selects a subset of all overlapping PTVs on each arc for sparing normal tissues in the brain. The algorithm also optimizes collimator angles, margins between multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) and PTVs, as well as monitor units (MUs) usingmore » minimization of conformity index (CI) for all targets. Planning performance was evaluated by comparing the MME-calculated treatment plan parameters with the same parameters calculated with the Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization on Varian’s Eclipse platform. Results: Figures 1 to 3 compare several treatment plan outcomes calculated between the MME and VMAT for 5 clinical multi-targets SRS patient plans. Prescribed target dose was volume-dependent and defined based on the RTOG recommendation. For a total number of 18 PTV’s, mean values for the CI, PITV, and GI were comparable between the MME and VMAT within one standard deviation (σ). However, MME-calculated MDPD was larger than the same VMAT-calculated parameter. While both techniques delivered similar maximum point doses to the critical cranial structures and total MU’s for the 5 patient plans, the MME required less treatment planning time by an order of magnitude compared to VMAT. Conclusion: The MME and VMAT produce similar plan qualities in terms of MUs, target dose conformation, and OAR dose sparing. While the selective use of PTVs for arc-optimization with the MME reduces significantly the total planning time in comparison to VMAT, the target dose homogeneity was also compromised due to its simplified inverse planning algorithm used.« less
  • Purpose: To perform a quantitative study to verify that the mechanical field center coincides with the radiation field center when both are off from the isocenter during the single-isocenter technique in linear accelerator-based SRS/SBRT procedure to treat multiple lesions. Methods: We developed an innovative method to measure this accuracy, called the off-isocenter Winston-Lutz test, and here we provide a practical clinical guideline to implement this technique. We used ImagePro V.6 to analyze images of a Winston-Lutz phantom obtained using a Varian 21EX linear accelerator with an electronic portal imaging device, set up as for single-isocenter SRS/SBRT for multiple lesions. Wemore » investigated asymmetry field centers that were 3 cm and 5 cm away from the isocenter, as well as performing the standard Winston-Lutz test. We used a special beam configuration to acquire images while avoiding collision, and we investigated both jaw and multileaf collimation. Results: For the jaw collimator setting, at 3 cm off-isocenter, the mechanical field deviated from the radiation field by about 2.5 mm; at 5 cm, the deviation was above 3 mm, up to 4.27 mm. For the multileaf collimator setting, at 3 cm off-isocenter, the deviation was below 1 mm; at 5 cm, the deviation was above 1 mm, up to 1.72 mm, which is 72% higher than the tolerance threshold. Conclusion: These results indicated that the further the asymmetry field center is from the machine isocenter, the larger the deviation of the mechanical field from the radiation field, and the distance between the center of the asymmetry field and the isocenter should not exceed 3 cm in of our clinic. We recommend that every clinic that uses linear accelerator, multileaf collimator-based SRS/SBRT perform the off-isocenter Winston-Lutz test in addition to the standard Winston-Lutz test and use their own deviation data to design the treatment plan.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric uncertainty associated with Gafchromic (EBT3) films and establish an absolute dosimetry protocol for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods: EBT3 films were irradiated at each of seven different dose levels between 1 and 15 Gy with open fields, and standard deviations of dose maps were calculated at each color channel for evaluation. A scanner non-uniform response correction map was built by registering and comparing film doses to the reference diode array-based dose map delivered with the same doses. To determine the temporal dependence of EBT3 films, the average correction factors of differentmore » dose levels as a function of time were evaluated up to four days after irradiation. An integrated film dosimetry protocol was developed for dose calibration, calibration curve fitting, dose mapping, and profile/gamma analysis. Patient specific quality assurance (PSQA) was performed for 93 SRS/SBRT treatment plans. Results: The scanner response varied within 1% for the field sizes less than 5 × 5 cm{sup 2}, and up to 5% for the field sizes of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}. The scanner correction method was able to remove visually evident, irregular detector responses found for larger field sizes. The dose response of the film changed rapidly (∼10%) in the first two hours and plateaued afterwards, ∼3% change between 2 and 24 hours. The mean uncertainties (mean of the standard deviations) were <0.5% over the dose range 1∼15Gy for all color channels for the OD response curves. The percentage of points passing the 3%/1mm gamma criteria based on absolute dose analysis, averaged over all tests, was 95.0 ± 4.2. Conclusion: We have developed an absolute film dose dosimetry protocol using EBT3 films. The overall uncertainty has been established to be approximately 1% for SRS and SBRT PSQA. The work was supported by a Research Scholar Grant, RSG-15-137-01-CCE from the American Cancer Society.« less