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Title: SU-F-T-555: Accurate Stereotactic Cone TMRs Converted from PDDs Scanned with Ray Trace

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate whether the accuracy of TMRs for stereotactic cones converted from PDDs scanned with Ray Trace can be improved, when compared against the TMRs converted from the traditional PDDs. Methods: Ray Trace measurement in Sun Nuclear 3D Scanner is for accurate scan of small field PDDs. The system detects the center of field at two depths, for example, at 3 and 20 cm in our study, and then performs scan along the line passing the two centers. With both Ray Trace and the traditional method, PDDs for conical cones of 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 mm diameter (jaws set to 5×5 cm) were obtained for 6X FFF and 10X FFF energies on a Varian Edge linac, using Edge detectors. The formalism of converting PDD to TMR given in Khan’s book (4th Edition, p.161) was applied. Sp values at dmax were obtained by measuring cone Scp and Sc. Continuous direct measurement of TMR by filling/draining water to/from the tank and spot measurement by moving the tank and detector were also performed with the same equipment, using 100 cm SDD. Results: For 6XFFF energy and all the cones, TMRs converted from Ray Trace were very close tomore » the continuous and spot measurement, while TMRs converted from traditional PDDs had larger deviation. Along the central axis beyond dmax, 1.7% of TMR data points calculated from Ray Trace had more 3% deviation from measurement, with maximal deviation of 5.2%. Whereas, 34% of TMR points calculated from traditional PDDs had more than 3% deviation, with maximum of 5.7%. In this initial study, Ray Trace scans for 10XFFF beam were noisy, further measurement is warranted. Conclusion: The Ray Trace could improve the accuracy of PDDs measurement and the calculated TMRs for stereotactic cones, which was within 3% of the measured TMRs.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649130
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; BEAMS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MAGNETORESISTANCE; RADIOTHERAPY; TUNNEL EFFECT; WATER

Citation Formats

Li, H, Zhong, H, Qin, Y, Snyder, K, Chetty, I, and Wen, N. SU-F-T-555: Accurate Stereotactic Cone TMRs Converted from PDDs Scanned with Ray Trace. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956740.
Li, H, Zhong, H, Qin, Y, Snyder, K, Chetty, I, & Wen, N. SU-F-T-555: Accurate Stereotactic Cone TMRs Converted from PDDs Scanned with Ray Trace. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956740.
Li, H, Zhong, H, Qin, Y, Snyder, K, Chetty, I, and Wen, N. 2016. "SU-F-T-555: Accurate Stereotactic Cone TMRs Converted from PDDs Scanned with Ray Trace". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956740.
@article{osti_22649130,
title = {SU-F-T-555: Accurate Stereotactic Cone TMRs Converted from PDDs Scanned with Ray Trace},
author = {Li, H and Zhong, H and Qin, Y and Snyder, K and Chetty, I and Wen, N},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To investigate whether the accuracy of TMRs for stereotactic cones converted from PDDs scanned with Ray Trace can be improved, when compared against the TMRs converted from the traditional PDDs. Methods: Ray Trace measurement in Sun Nuclear 3D Scanner is for accurate scan of small field PDDs. The system detects the center of field at two depths, for example, at 3 and 20 cm in our study, and then performs scan along the line passing the two centers. With both Ray Trace and the traditional method, PDDs for conical cones of 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 mm diameter (jaws set to 5×5 cm) were obtained for 6X FFF and 10X FFF energies on a Varian Edge linac, using Edge detectors. The formalism of converting PDD to TMR given in Khan’s book (4th Edition, p.161) was applied. Sp values at dmax were obtained by measuring cone Scp and Sc. Continuous direct measurement of TMR by filling/draining water to/from the tank and spot measurement by moving the tank and detector were also performed with the same equipment, using 100 cm SDD. Results: For 6XFFF energy and all the cones, TMRs converted from Ray Trace were very close to the continuous and spot measurement, while TMRs converted from traditional PDDs had larger deviation. Along the central axis beyond dmax, 1.7% of TMR data points calculated from Ray Trace had more 3% deviation from measurement, with maximal deviation of 5.2%. Whereas, 34% of TMR points calculated from traditional PDDs had more than 3% deviation, with maximum of 5.7%. In this initial study, Ray Trace scans for 10XFFF beam were noisy, further measurement is warranted. Conclusion: The Ray Trace could improve the accuracy of PDDs measurement and the calculated TMRs for stereotactic cones, which was within 3% of the measured TMRs.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956740},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To investigate the variation of TMR for SRS cones obtained by TMR scanning, calculation from PDDs, and point measurements. The obtained TMRs were also compared to the representative data from the vendor. Methods: TMRs for conical cones of 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 mm diameter (jaws set to 5×5 cm) were obtained for 6X FFF and 10X FFF energies on a Varian Edge linac. TMR scanning was performed with a Sun Nuclear 3D scanner and Edge detector at 100 cm SDD. TMR point measurements were measured with a Wellhofer tank and Edge detector, at multiple depthsmore » from 0.5 to 20 cm and 100 cm SDD. PDDs for converting to TMR were scanned with a Wellhofer system and SFD detector. The formalism of converting PDD to TMR, given in Khan’s book (4th Edition, p.161) was applied. Sp values at dmax were obtained by measuring Scp and Sc of the cones (jaws set to 5×5 cm) using the Edge detector, and normalized to the 10×10 cm field. Results: Along the central axis beyond dmax, the RMS and maximum percent difference of TMRs obtained with different methods were as follows: (a) 1.3% (max=3.5%) for the calculated TMRs from PDDs versus direct scanning; (b) 1.2% (max=3.3%) for direct scanning versus point measurement; (c) 1.8% (max=5.1%) for the calculated versus point measurements; (d) 1.0% (max=3.6%) for direct scanning versus vendor data; (e) 1.6% (max=7.2%) for the calculated versus vendor data. Conclusion: The overall accuracy of TMRs calculated from PDDs was comparable with that of direct scanning. However, the uncertainty at depths greater than 20 cm, increased up to 5% when compared to point measurements. This issue must be considered when developing a beam model for small field SRS planning using cones.« less
  • The long trace profiler (Takacs {ital et} {ital al}.) has found significant applications in measuring the surfaces of synchrotron optics. However, requirements of small slope errors at all spatial wavelengths of the synchrotron optics mandate more accurate slope measurements. A straightness reference for the long trace profiler greatly increases the accuracy of the instrument. Methods of using the straightness reference by interpreting the sequential interference patterns are discussed and results of measurements are presented.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) image-fusion-guided target localization system and a mask based stereotactic system for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) of cranial lesions. A commercial x-ray image guidance system originally developed for extracranial radiosurgery was used for FSRT of cranial lesions. The localization accuracy was quantitatively evaluated with an anthropomorphic head phantom implanted with eight small radiopaque markers (BBs) in different locations. The accuracy and its clinical reliability were also qualitatively evaluated for a total of 127 fractions in 12 patients with both kV x-ray images and MVmore » portal films. The image-guided system was then used as a standard to evaluate the overall uncertainty and reproducibility of the head mask based stereotactic system in these patients. The phantom study demonstrated that the maximal random error of the image-guided target localization was {+-}0.6 mm in each direction in terms of the 95% confidence interval (CI). The systematic error varied with measurement methods. It was approximately 0.4 mm, mainly in the longitudinal direction, for the kV x-ray method. There was a 0.5 mm systematic difference, primarily in the lateral direction, between the kV x-ray and the MV portal methods. The patient study suggested that the accuracy of the image-guided system in patients was comparable to that in the phantom. The overall uncertainty of the mask system was {+-}4 mm, and the reproducibility was {+-}2.9 mm in terms of 95% CI. The study demonstrated that the image guidance system provides accurate and precise target positioning.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate how the shape of air gap and its size will impact the percent depth doses (PDDs) of a 6MV photon beam for various field sizes. Methods: Two in-house phantoms were manufactured containing rectangular (phantom A) and circular (phantom B) air gaps. Both phantoms A and B were composed of same top layer (solid-water; 30×30cm{sup 2},5cm thickness) and bottom layer (solid-water; 30×30cm {sup 2},8cm thickness), but middle layer was varied to observe air gap effects and scatter contribution to the measurement point. In phantom A, a rectangular shaped air gap (30×30cm{sup 2},7cm thickness) was created by placing Styrofoammore » blocks between top and bottom layers of the phantom. In phantom B, middle layer was replaced by “inhomogenous block”, composed of acrylic plate (30×30cm{sup 2}, 4cm thickness) followed by PVC(30×30cm{sup 2},3cm thickness). Additionally, circular air gap was created by drilling a hole (diameter=2.8cm, length=7cm) at the center of “inhomogenous block”. In both phantoms, measurement readings were obtained at 13cm depth (i.e., 1cm after air gap) and depth of maximum dose(6MV energy; 100 MUs; field sizes ranged from 3×3cm{sup 2} to 10×10cm{sup 2}). The PDDs at 13cm depth were compared in both phantoms. Results: The measurements in both phantoms A and B showed an almost linear increase in PDDs with increasing field size, especially for smaller field sizes (from 3×3 to 7×7cm{sup 2}). For each field size, the PDD in phantom A was smaller compared to the one in phantom B. The difference in PDDs between two phantoms decreased with an increase in field size as the PDD difference decreased from 9.0% to 6.4%. Conclusion: The shape and size of air gap affect the PDD measurements in secondary build-up region as 6 MV primary beam traverses through the center of air gap. The scatter contribution due to increase in field size was more noticeable for field sizes ≤7×7cm{sup 2}.« less
  • Image fusion, target localization, and setup accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) were investigated in this study. A Rando head phantom rigidly attached to a stereotactic Brown-Roberts-Wells (BRW) frame was utilized to study the geometric accuracy of CBCT. Measurements of distances and angular separations between selected pairs of multiple radio-opaque targets embedded in the head phantom from a conventional simulation CT provided comparative data for geometric accuracy analysis. Localization accuracy of the CBCT scan was investigated from an analysis of BRW localization of four cylindrical objects (9 mm in diameter and 25 mm in length) independentlymore » computed from CBCT and conventional CT scans. Image fusion accuracy was quantitatively evaluated from BRW localization of multiple simulated targets from the CBCT and conventional CT scan. Finally, a CBCT setup procedure for stereotactic radiosurgery treatments was proposed and its accuracy was assessed using orthogonal target verification imaging. Our study showed that CBCT did not present any significant geometric distortions. Stereotactic coordinates of the four cylindrical objects as determined from the CBCT differed from those determined from the conventional CT on average by 0.30 mm with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.09 mm. The mean image registration accuracy of CBCT with conventional CT was 0.28 mm (SD=0.10 mm). Setup uncertainty of our proposed CBCT setup procedure was on the same order as the conventional framed-based stereotactic systems reported in the literature (mean=1.34 mm, SD=0.33 mm). In conclusion, CBCT can be used to guide SRS treatment setup with accuracy comparable to the currently used frame-based stereotactic radiosurgery systems provided that intra-treatment patient motion is prevented.« less