skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-F-T-522: Dosimetric Study of Junction Dose in Double Isocenter Flatten and Flatten Filter Free IMRT and VMAT Plan Delivery

Abstract

Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric accuracy of junction dose in double isocenter flattened and flatten filter free(FFF) intensity modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy(VMAT) plan delivery using pelvis phantom. Methods: Five large field pelvis patients were selected for this study. Double isocenter IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were generated in Eclipse Treatment planning System (V.11.0) using 6MV FB and FFF beams. For all the plans same distance 17.0cm was kept between one isocenter to another isocenter. IMRT Plans were made with 7 coplanar fields and VMAT plans were made with full double arcs. Dose calculation was performed using AAA algorithms with dose grid size of 0.25 cm. Verification plans were calculated on Scanditronix Wellhofer pelvis slab phantom. Measurement point was selected and calculated, where two isocenter plan fields are overlapping, this measurement point was kept at distance 8.5cm from both isocenter. The plans were delivered using Varian TrueBeamTM machine on pelvis slab phantom. Point dose measurements was carried out using CC13 ion chamber volume of 0.13cm3. Results: The measured junction point dose are compared with TPS calculated dose. The mean difference observed was 4.5%, 6.0%, 4.0% and 7.0% for IMRT-FB,IMRT-FFF, VMAT-FB and VMAT-FFF respectively. The measured dose resultsmore » shows closer agreement with calculated dose in Flatten beam planning in both IMRT and VMAT, whereas in FFF beam plan dose difference are more compared with flatten beam plan. Conclusion: Dosimetry accuracy of Large Field junction dose difference was found less in Flatten beam compared with FFF beam plan delivery. Even though more dosimetric studies are required to analyse junction dose for FFF beam planning using multiple point dose measurements and fluence map verification in field junction area.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi, Delhi (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649108
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BEAMS; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; PELVIS; PHANTOMS; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Samuvel, K, Yadav, G, Bhushan, M, Tamilarasu, S, Kumar, L, and Suhail, M. SU-F-T-522: Dosimetric Study of Junction Dose in Double Isocenter Flatten and Flatten Filter Free IMRT and VMAT Plan Delivery. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956707.
Samuvel, K, Yadav, G, Bhushan, M, Tamilarasu, S, Kumar, L, & Suhail, M. SU-F-T-522: Dosimetric Study of Junction Dose in Double Isocenter Flatten and Flatten Filter Free IMRT and VMAT Plan Delivery. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956707.
Samuvel, K, Yadav, G, Bhushan, M, Tamilarasu, S, Kumar, L, and Suhail, M. 2016. "SU-F-T-522: Dosimetric Study of Junction Dose in Double Isocenter Flatten and Flatten Filter Free IMRT and VMAT Plan Delivery". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956707.
@article{osti_22649108,
title = {SU-F-T-522: Dosimetric Study of Junction Dose in Double Isocenter Flatten and Flatten Filter Free IMRT and VMAT Plan Delivery},
author = {Samuvel, K and Yadav, G and Bhushan, M and Tamilarasu, S and Kumar, L and Suhail, M},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric accuracy of junction dose in double isocenter flattened and flatten filter free(FFF) intensity modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy(VMAT) plan delivery using pelvis phantom. Methods: Five large field pelvis patients were selected for this study. Double isocenter IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were generated in Eclipse Treatment planning System (V.11.0) using 6MV FB and FFF beams. For all the plans same distance 17.0cm was kept between one isocenter to another isocenter. IMRT Plans were made with 7 coplanar fields and VMAT plans were made with full double arcs. Dose calculation was performed using AAA algorithms with dose grid size of 0.25 cm. Verification plans were calculated on Scanditronix Wellhofer pelvis slab phantom. Measurement point was selected and calculated, where two isocenter plan fields are overlapping, this measurement point was kept at distance 8.5cm from both isocenter. The plans were delivered using Varian TrueBeamTM machine on pelvis slab phantom. Point dose measurements was carried out using CC13 ion chamber volume of 0.13cm3. Results: The measured junction point dose are compared with TPS calculated dose. The mean difference observed was 4.5%, 6.0%, 4.0% and 7.0% for IMRT-FB,IMRT-FFF, VMAT-FB and VMAT-FFF respectively. The measured dose results shows closer agreement with calculated dose in Flatten beam planning in both IMRT and VMAT, whereas in FFF beam plan dose difference are more compared with flatten beam plan. Conclusion: Dosimetry accuracy of Large Field junction dose difference was found less in Flatten beam compared with FFF beam plan delivery. Even though more dosimetric studies are required to analyse junction dose for FFF beam planning using multiple point dose measurements and fluence map verification in field junction area.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956707},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Respiratory motion can introduce substantial dose errors during IMRT delivery. These errors are difficult to predict because of the nonsynchronous interplay between radiation beams and tissues. The present study investigates the impact of dose fractionation on respiratory motion induced dosimetric errors during IMRT delivery and their radiobiological implications by using measured 3D dose. We focused on IMRT delivery with dynamic multileaf collimation (DMLC-IMRT). IMRT plans using several beam arrangements were optimized for and delivered to a polystyrene phantom containing a simulated target and critical organs. The phantom was set in linear sinusoidal motion at a frequency of 15 cycles/min (0.25more » Hz). The amplitude of the motion was {+-}0.75 cm in the longitudinal direction and {+-}0.25 cm in the lateral direction. Absolute doses were measured with a 0.125 cc ionization chamber while dose distributions were measured with transverse films spaced 6 mm apart. Measurements were performed for varying number of fractions with motion, with respiratory-gated motion, and without motion. A tumor control probability (TCP) model for an inhomogeneously irradiated tumor was used to calculate and compare TCPs for the measurements and the treatment plans. Equivalent uniform doses (EUD) were also computed. For individual fields, point measurements using an ionization chamber showed substantial dose deviations (-11.7% to 47.8%) for the moving phantom as compared to the stationary phantom. However, much smaller deviations (-1.7% to 3.5%) were observed for the composite dose of all fields. The dose distributions and DVHs of stationary and gated deliveries were in good agreement with those of treatment plans, while those of the nongated moving phantom showed substantial differences. Compared to the stationaryphantom, the largest differences observed for the minimum and maximum target doses were -18.8% and +19.7%, respectively. Due to their random nature, these dose errors tended to average out over fractionated treatments. The results of five-fraction measurements showed significantly improved agreement between the moving and stationary phantom. The changes in TCP were less than 4.3% for a single fraction, and less than 2.3% for two or more fractions. Variation of average EUD per fraction was small (<3.1 cGy for a fraction size of 200 cGy), even when the DVHs were noticeably different from that of the stationary tumor. In conclusion, IMRT treatment of sites affected by respiratory motion can introduce significant dose errors in individual field doses; however, these errors tend to cancel out between fields and average out over dose fractionation. 3D dose distributions, DVHs, TCPs, and EUDs for stationary and moving cases showed good agreement after two or more fractions, suggesting that tumors affected by respiration motion may be treated using IMRT without significant dosimetric and biological consequences.« less
  • Purpose: To identify the robustness of different treatment techniques in respect to simulated linac errors on the dose distribution to the target volume and organs at risk for step and shoot IMRT (ssIMRT), VMAT and Autoplan generated VMAT nasopharynx plans. Methods: A nasopharynx patient dataset was retrospectively replanned with three different techniques: 7 beam ssIMRT, one arc manual generated VMAT and one arc automatically generated VMAT. Treatment simulated uncertainties: gantry, collimator, MLC field size and MLC shifts, were introduced into these plans at increments of 5,2,1,−1,−2 and −5 (degrees or mm) and recalculated in Pinnacle. The mean and maximum dosesmore » were calculated for the high dose PTV, parotids, brainstem, and spinal cord and then compared to the original baseline plan. Results: Simulated gantry angle errors have <1% effect on the PTV, ssIMRT is most sensitive. The small collimator errors (±1 and ±2 degrees) impacted the mean PTV dose by <2% for all techniques, however for the ±5 degree errors mean target varied by up to 7% for the Autoplan VMAT and 10% for the max dose to the spinal cord and brain stem, seen in all techniques. The simulated MLC shifts introduced the largest errors for the Autoplan VMAT, with the larger MLC modulation presumably being the cause. The most critical error observed, was the MLC field size error, where even small errors of 1 mm, caused significant changes to both the PTV and the OAR. The ssIMRT is the least sensitive and the Autoplan the most sensitive, with target errors of up to 20% over and under dosages observed. Conclusion: For a nasopharynx patient the plan robustness observed is highest for the ssIMRT plan and lowest for the Autoplan generated VMAT plan. This could be caused by the more complex MLC modulation seen for the VMAT plans. This project is supported by a grant from NSW Cancer Council.« less
  • Purpose: The advent of the MR-Linac enables real-time and high soft tissue contrast image guidance in radiation therapy (RT) delivery. Potential hot-spots at air-tissue interfaces, such as the sphenoid sinus, in RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), could potentially occur due to the electron return effect (ERE). In this study, we investigate the dosimetric effects of ERE on the dose distribution at air-tissues interfaces in HNC IMRT treatment planning. Methods: IMRT plans were generated based on planning CT’s acquired for HNC cases (nasopharynx, base of skull and paranasal sinus) using a research planning system (Monaco, v5.09.06, Elekta) employing Montemore » Carlo dose calculations with or without the presence of a transverse magnetic field (TMF). The dose in the air cavity was calculated in a 1 & 2 mm thick tissue layer, while the dose to the skin was calculated in a 1, 3 and 5 mm thick tissue layer. The maximum dose received in 1 cc volume, D1cc, were collected at different TMF strengths. Plan qualities generated with or without TMF or with increasing TMF were compared in terms of commonly-used dose-volume parameters (DVPs). Results: Variations in DVPs between plans with and without a TMF present were found to be within 5% of the planning CT. The presence of a TMF results in <5% changes in sinus air tissue interface. The largest skin dose differences with and without TMF were found within 1 mm of the skin surface Conclusion: The presence of a TMF results in practically insignificant changes in HNC IMRT plan quality, except for skin dose. Planning optimization with skin DV constraints could reduce the skin doses. This research was partially supported by Elekta Inc. (Crowley, U.K.)« less
  • Purpose: Helical tomotherapy (HT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) are arc-based approaches to IMRT delivery. The objective of this study is to compare VMAT to both HT and fixed field IMRT in terms of plan quality, delivery efficiency, and accuracy. Methods: Eighteen cases including six prostate, six head-and-neck, and six lung cases were selected for this study. IMRT plans were developed using direct machine parameter optimization in the Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system. HT plans were developed using a Hi-Art II planning station. VMAT plans were generated using both the Pinnacle{sup 3} SmartArc IMRT module and a home-grown arcmore » sequencing algorithm. VMAT and HT plans were delivered using Elekta's PreciseBeam VMAT linac control system (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) and a TomoTherapy Hi-Art II system (TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI), respectively. Treatment plan quality assurance (QA) for VMAT was performed using the IBA MatriXX system while an ion chamber and films were used for HT plan QA. Results: The results demonstrate that both VMAT and HT are capable of providing more uniform target doses and improved normal tissue sparing as compared with fixed field IMRT. In terms of delivery efficiency, VMAT plan deliveries on average took 2.2 min for prostate and lung cases and 4.6 min for head-and-neck cases. These values increased to 4.7 and 7.0 min for HT plans. Conclusions: Both VMAT and HT plans can be delivered accurately based on their own QA standards. Overall, VMAT was able to provide approximately a 40% reduction in treatment time while maintaining comparable plan quality to that of HT.« less
  • Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) are techniques that are widely used for treating cancer due to better target coverage and critical structure sparing. The increasing complexity of IMRT and VMAT plans leads to decreases in dose calculation accuracy. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method for the determination of dose distributions in patients. However, the simulation settings for modeling an accurate treatment head are very complex and time consuming. The purpose of this work is to report our implementation of a simple Monte Carlo simulation system in a cloud-computing environment for dosimetric verification ofmore » IMRT and VMAT plans. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian Clinac linear accelerator were performed using the BEAMnrc code, and dose distributions were calculated using the DOSXYZnrc code. Input files for the simulations were automatically generated from DICOM RT files by the developed web application. We therefore must only upload the DICOM RT files through the web interface, and the simulations are run in the cloud. The calculated dose distributions were exported to RT Dose files that can be downloaded through the web interface. The accuracy of the calculated dose distribution was verified by dose measurements. Results: IMRT and VMAT simulations were performed and good agreement results were observed for measured and MC dose comparison. Gamma analysis with a 3% dose and 3 mm DTA criteria shows a mean gamma index value of 95% for the studied cases. Conclusion: A Monte Carlo-based dose calculation system has been successfully implemented in a cloud environment. The developed system can be used for independent dose verification of IMRT and VMAT plans in routine clinical practice. The system will also be helpful for improving accuracy in beam modeling and dose calculation in treatment planning systems. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25861057.« less