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Title: SU-F-T-264: VMAT QA with 2D Radiation Measuring Equipment Attached to Gantry

Abstract

Purpose: To introduce a method of VMAT QA by 2D measuring device. The 2D device is attached to the gantry throughout measurement duration. This eliminates error caused by the angular dependence of the radiation detectors. Methods: A 2D radiation measuring device was attached to the gantry of linear accelerator. The center of the detector plane was at the isocenter. For each patient plan, two verification plans were created for QA purpose. One was like an ordinary VMAT plan, to be used for radiation delivery. The other is a plan with gantry angle fixed at zero, so the dose distribution as seen by the rotating 2D device. Points above 10% dose threshold were analyzed. Data is in tolerance if it fits within the 3 mm or 3% dose gamma criteria. For each patient, the plan was passed when 95% of all the points in the 2D matrix fit the gamma criteria. The following statistics were calculated: number of patient plans passed, percentage of all points passed, average percentage difference of all points. Results: VMAT QA was performed for patients during one year in our department, and the results were analyzed. All irradiation was with 6 MV photon beam. Each plan hasmore » calculated and measured doses compared. After collecting one year’s result, with 81 patient plans analyzed, all (100%) of the plans passed the gamma criteria. Of the points analyzed from all plans, 98.8% of all points passed. Conclusion: This method of attaching a 2D measuring device on the linac gantry proves to be an accurate way for VMAT QA. It is simple to use and low cost, and it eliminates the problem of directional dependence.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. University Medical Center, SWCC, Lubbock, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22648879
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; EQUIPMENT; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; PATIENTS; PHOTON BEAMS; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Fung, A. SU-F-T-264: VMAT QA with 2D Radiation Measuring Equipment Attached to Gantry. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956474.
Fung, A. SU-F-T-264: VMAT QA with 2D Radiation Measuring Equipment Attached to Gantry. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956474.
Fung, A. 2016. "SU-F-T-264: VMAT QA with 2D Radiation Measuring Equipment Attached to Gantry". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956474.
@article{osti_22648879,
title = {SU-F-T-264: VMAT QA with 2D Radiation Measuring Equipment Attached to Gantry},
author = {Fung, A},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To introduce a method of VMAT QA by 2D measuring device. The 2D device is attached to the gantry throughout measurement duration. This eliminates error caused by the angular dependence of the radiation detectors. Methods: A 2D radiation measuring device was attached to the gantry of linear accelerator. The center of the detector plane was at the isocenter. For each patient plan, two verification plans were created for QA purpose. One was like an ordinary VMAT plan, to be used for radiation delivery. The other is a plan with gantry angle fixed at zero, so the dose distribution as seen by the rotating 2D device. Points above 10% dose threshold were analyzed. Data is in tolerance if it fits within the 3 mm or 3% dose gamma criteria. For each patient, the plan was passed when 95% of all the points in the 2D matrix fit the gamma criteria. The following statistics were calculated: number of patient plans passed, percentage of all points passed, average percentage difference of all points. Results: VMAT QA was performed for patients during one year in our department, and the results were analyzed. All irradiation was with 6 MV photon beam. Each plan has calculated and measured doses compared. After collecting one year’s result, with 81 patient plans analyzed, all (100%) of the plans passed the gamma criteria. Of the points analyzed from all plans, 98.8% of all points passed. Conclusion: This method of attaching a 2D measuring device on the linac gantry proves to be an accurate way for VMAT QA. It is simple to use and low cost, and it eliminates the problem of directional dependence.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956474},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then,more » the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.« less
  • Purpose: The continuous scanning mode of electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) that offers time-resolved information has been newly explored for verifying dynamic radiation deliveries. This study seeks to determine operating conditions (dose rate stability and time resolution) under which that mode can be used accurately for the time-resolved dosimetry of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams.Methods: The authors have designed the following test beams with variable beam holdoffs and dose rate regulations: a 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm open beam to serve as a reference beam; a sliding window (SW) beam utilizing the motion of a pair of multileaf collimator (MLC) leavesmore » outside the 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm jaw; a step and shoot (SS) beam to move the pair in step; a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) beam. The beams were designed in such a way that they all produce the same open beam output of 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm. Time-resolved ion chamber measurements at isocenter and time-resolved and integrating EPID measurements were performed for all beams. The time-resolved EPID measurements were evaluated through comparison with the ion chamber and integrating EPID measurements, as the latter are accepted procedures. For two-dimensional, time-resolved evaluation, a VMAT beam with an infield MLC travel was designed. Time-resolved EPID measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of such EPID dose images for this beam were performed and intercompared.Results: For IMRT beams (SW and SS), the authors found disagreement greater than 2%, caused by frame missing of the time-resolved mode. However, frame missing disappeared, yielding agreement better than 2%, when the dose rate of irradiation (and thus the frame acquisition rates) reached a stable and planned rate as the dose of irradiation was raised past certain thresholds (a minimum 12 s of irradiation per shoot used for SS IMRT). For VMAT, the authors found that dose rate does not affect the frame acquisition rate, thereby causing no frame missing. However, serious inplanar nonuniformities were found. This could be overcome by sacrificing temporal resolution (10 frames or 0.95 s/image): the continuous images agreed with ion chamber responses at the center of EPID and the calculation two-dimensionally in a time-resolved manner.Conclusions: The authors have determined conditions under which the continuous mode can be used for time-resolved dosimetry of fixed-gantry IMRT and VMAT and demonstrated it for VMAT.« less
  • Purpose: Pretreatment verification of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dose delivery with electronic portal imaging device (EPID) uses images integrated over the entire delivery or over large subarcs. This work aims to develop a new method for gantry-angle-resolved verification of VMAT dose delivery using EPID.Methods: An EPID dose prediction model was used to calculate EPID images as a function of gantry angle for eight prostate patient deliveries. EPID image frames at 7.5 frames per second were acquired during delivery via a frame-grabber system. The gantry angle for each image was encoded in kV frames which were synchronized to the MVmore » frames. Gamma analysis results as a function of gantry angle were assessed by integrating the frames over 2° subarcs with an angle-to-agreement tolerance of 0.5° about the measured image angle.Results: The model agreed with EPID images integrated over the entire delivery with average Gamma pass-rates at 2%, 2 mm of 99.7% (10% threshold). The accuracy of the kV derived gantry angle for each image was found to be 0.1° (1 SD) using a phantom test. For the gantry-resolved analysis all Gamma pass-rates were greater than 90% at 3%, 3 mm criteria (with only two exceptions), and more than 90% had a 95% pass-rate, with an average of 97.3%. The measured gantry angle lagged behind the predicted angle by a mean of 0.3°± 0.3°, with a maximum lag of 1.3°.Conclusions: The method provides a comprehensive and highly efficient pretreatment verification of VMAT delivery using EPID. Dose delivery accuracy is assessed as a function of gantry angle to ensure accurate treatment.« less
  • Purpose: To choose appropriate gantry starting angle for partial left breast irradiation using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: A random patient of left breast carcinoma was selected for this study. The slice which was selected for this mathematical formulation was having maximum breast thickness and maximum medial and lateral tangential distance. After this appropriate isocenter was chosen on that CT slice. The distances between various points were measured by the measuring tool in Monaco 5.00.04. Using the various trigonometric equations, a final equation was derived which shows the relationship between Gantry start angle, isocenter Location and tissue thickness. Results:more » The final equation for gantry start for right medial tangential arc is given asStarting angle = 270°+tan^(−1)(sin(θ)/(x-1/x-2 +cosθ))The above equation was tested for 10 cases and it was found to be appropriate for all the cases. Conclusion: Gantry starting angle for partial arc irradiation depends upon Breast thickness, Distance between Medial and lateral tangent and isocenter location.« less
  • Purpose: To automate gantry-resolved linear accelerator (linac) quality assurance (QA) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Methods: A QA system for VMAT was developed that uses an EPID, frame-grabber assembly and in-house developed image processing software. The system relies solely on the analysis of EPID image frames acquired without the presence of a phantom. Images were acquired at 8.41 frames per second using a frame grabber and ancillary acquisition computer. Each image frame was tagged with a gantry angle from the linac’s on-board gantry angle encoder. Arc-dynamic QA plans were designed to assessmore » the performance of each individual linac component during VMAT. By analysing each image frame acquired during the QA deliveries the following eight machine performance characteristics were measured as a function of gantry angle: MLC positional accuracy, MLC speed constancy, MLC acceleration constancy, MLC-gantry synchronisation, beam profile constancy, dose rate constancy, gantry speed constancy, dose-gantry angle synchronisation and mechanical sag. All tests were performed on a Varian iX linear accelerator equipped with a 120 leaf Millennium MLC and an aS1000 EPID (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA). Results: Machine performance parameters were measured as a function of gantry angle using EPID imaging and compared to machine log files and the treatment plan. Data acquisition is currently underway at 3 centres, incorporating 7 treatment units, at 2 weekly measurement intervals. Conclusion: The proposed system can be applied for streamlined linac QA and commissioning for VMAT. The set of test plans developed can be used to assess the performance of each individual components of the treatment machine during VMAT deliveries as a function of gantry angle. The methodology does not require the setup of any additional phantom or measurement equipment and the analysis is fully automated to allow for regular routine testing.« less