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Title: SU-F-T-147: An Alternative Parameterization of Scatter Behavior Allows Significant Reduction of Beam Characterization for Pencil Beam Proton Therapy

Abstract

Purpose: 1) To describe the characteristics of pencil beam proton dose deposition kernels in a homogenous medium using a novel parameterization. 2) To propose a method utilizing this novel parametrization to reduce the measurements and pre-computation required in commissioning a pencil beam proton therapy system. Methods: Using beam data from a clinical, pencil beam proton therapy center, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to characterize the dose depositions at a range of energies from 100.32 to 226.08 MeV in 3.6MeV steps. At each energy, the beam is defined at the surface of the phantom by a two-dimensional Normal distribution. Using FLUKA, the in-medium dose distribution is calculated in 200×200×350 mm cube with 1 mm{sup 3} tally volumes. The calculated dose distribution in each 200×200 slice perpendicular to the beam axis is then characterized using a symmetric alpha-stable distribution centered on the beam axis. This results in two parameters, α and γ, that completely describe shape of the distribution. In addition, the total dose deposited on each slice is calculated. The alpha-stable parameters are plotted as function of the depth in-medium, providing a representation of dose deposition along the pencil beam. We observed that these graphs are isometric through a scaling ofmore » both abscissa and ordinate map the curves. Results: Using interpolation of the scaling factors of two source curves representative of different beam energies, we predicted the parameters of a third curve at an intermediate energy. The errors are quantified by the maximal difference and provide a fit better than previous methods. The maximal energy difference between the source curves generating identical curves was 21.14MeV. Conclusion: We have introduced a novel method to parameterize the in-phantom properties of pencil beam proton dose depositions. For the case of the Knoxville IBA system, no more than nine pencil beams have to be fully characterized.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642388
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; MEV RANGE 100-1000; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; TWO-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

Citation Formats

Van den Heuvel, F, Fiorini, F, and George, B. SU-F-T-147: An Alternative Parameterization of Scatter Behavior Allows Significant Reduction of Beam Characterization for Pencil Beam Proton Therapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956283.
Van den Heuvel, F, Fiorini, F, & George, B. SU-F-T-147: An Alternative Parameterization of Scatter Behavior Allows Significant Reduction of Beam Characterization for Pencil Beam Proton Therapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956283.
Van den Heuvel, F, Fiorini, F, and George, B. 2016. "SU-F-T-147: An Alternative Parameterization of Scatter Behavior Allows Significant Reduction of Beam Characterization for Pencil Beam Proton Therapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956283.
@article{osti_22642388,
title = {SU-F-T-147: An Alternative Parameterization of Scatter Behavior Allows Significant Reduction of Beam Characterization for Pencil Beam Proton Therapy},
author = {Van den Heuvel, F and Fiorini, F and George, B},
abstractNote = {Purpose: 1) To describe the characteristics of pencil beam proton dose deposition kernels in a homogenous medium using a novel parameterization. 2) To propose a method utilizing this novel parametrization to reduce the measurements and pre-computation required in commissioning a pencil beam proton therapy system. Methods: Using beam data from a clinical, pencil beam proton therapy center, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to characterize the dose depositions at a range of energies from 100.32 to 226.08 MeV in 3.6MeV steps. At each energy, the beam is defined at the surface of the phantom by a two-dimensional Normal distribution. Using FLUKA, the in-medium dose distribution is calculated in 200×200×350 mm cube with 1 mm{sup 3} tally volumes. The calculated dose distribution in each 200×200 slice perpendicular to the beam axis is then characterized using a symmetric alpha-stable distribution centered on the beam axis. This results in two parameters, α and γ, that completely describe shape of the distribution. In addition, the total dose deposited on each slice is calculated. The alpha-stable parameters are plotted as function of the depth in-medium, providing a representation of dose deposition along the pencil beam. We observed that these graphs are isometric through a scaling of both abscissa and ordinate map the curves. Results: Using interpolation of the scaling factors of two source curves representative of different beam energies, we predicted the parameters of a third curve at an intermediate energy. The errors are quantified by the maximal difference and provide a fit better than previous methods. The maximal energy difference between the source curves generating identical curves was 21.14MeV. Conclusion: We have introduced a novel method to parameterize the in-phantom properties of pencil beam proton dose depositions. For the case of the Knoxville IBA system, no more than nine pencil beams have to be fully characterized.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956283},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Proton radiation therapy can deliver high radiation doses to tumors while sparing normal tissue. However, protons yield secondary neutron and gamma radiation that is difficult to detect, small in comparison to the prescribed dose, and not accounted for in most treatment planning systems. The risk for secondary malignancies after proton therapy may be dependent on the quality of this dose. Consequently, there is interest in characterizing the secondary radiation. Previously, we used the dual ionization chamber method to measure the separate absorbed dose from gamma-rays and neutrons secondary to the proton beam1, relying on characterization of ionization chamber response inmore » the unknown neutron spectrum from Monte Carlo simulation. We developed a procedure to use Shieldwerx activation foils, with neutron activation energies ranging from 0.025 eV to 13.5 MeV, to measure the neutron energy spectrum from double scattering (DS) and pencil beam scanning (PBS) protons outside of the treatment volume in a water tank. The activated foils are transferred to a NaI well chamber for gamma-ray spectroscopy and activity measurement. Since PBS treats in layers, the switching time between layers is used to correct for the decay of the activated foils and the relative dose per layer is assumed to be proportional to the neutron fluence per layer. MATLAB code was developed to incorporate the layer delivery and switching time into a calculation of foil activity, which is then used to determine the neutron energy fluence from tabulated foil activation energy thresholds.1. Diffenderfer et. al., Med. Phys., 38(11) 2011.« less
  • A prototype device consisting of a focused array of several scanning collimator plates that produce multiple pencil beams has been constructed for radiographic imaging. Under normal imaging conditions, the scatter-to-primary ratio resulting from this device is less than 10%. High-contrast radiographs can be produced without increasing patient radiation dose.
  • For the case of eye tumor therapy with protons, improvements are introduced compared to the standard dose calculation which implies straight-line optics and the constant-density assumption for the eye and its surrounding. The progress consists of (i) taking account of the lateral scattering of the protons in tissue by folding the entrance fluence distribution with the pencil beam distribution widening with growing depth in the tissue, (ii) rescaling the spread-out Bragg peak dose distribution in water with the radiological path length calculated voxel by voxel on ray traces through a realistic density matrix for the treatment geometry, yielding a trajectorymore » dependence of the geometrical range. Distributions calculated for some specific situations are compared to measurements and/or standard calculations, and differences to the latter are discussed with respect to the requirements of therapy planning. The most pronounced changes appear for wedges placed in front of the eye, causing additional widening of the lateral falloff. The more accurate prediction of the dose dependence at the field borders is of interest with respect to side effects in the risk organs of the eye.« less
  • Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric consequence of spot size variations and validate beam-matching criteria for commissioning a pencil beam model for multiple treatment rooms. Methods: A planning study was first conducted by simulating spot size variations to systematically evaluate dosimetric impact of spot size variations in selected cases, which was used to establish the in-air spot size tolerance for beam matching specifications. A beam model in treatment planning system was created using in-air spot profiles acquired in one treatment room. These spot profiles were also acquired from another treatment room for assessing the actual spot size variations between the twomore » treatment rooms. We created twenty five test plans with targets of different sizes at different depths, and performed dose measurement along the entrance, proximal and distal target regions. The absolute doses at those locations were measured using ionization chambers at both treatment rooms, and were compared against the calculated doses by the beam model. Fifteen additional patient plans were also measured and included in our validation. Results: The beam model is relatively insensitive to spot size variations. With an average of less than 15% measured in-air spot size variations between two treatment rooms, the average dose difference was −0.15% with a standard deviation of 0.40% for 55 measurement points within target region; but the differences increased to 1.4%±1.1% in the entrance regions, which are more affected by in-air spot size variations. Overall, our single-room based beam model in the treatment planning system agreed with measurements in both rooms < 0.5% within the target region. For fifteen patient cases, the agreement was within 1%. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that dosimetrically equivalent machines can be established when in-air spot size variations are within 15% between the two treatment rooms.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether organ sparing and target coverage can be simultaneously maintained for pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy treatment of thoracic tumors in the presence of motion, stopping power uncertainties and patient setup variations. Methods: Ten consecutive patients that were previously treated with proton therapy to 66.6/1.8 Gy (RBE) using double scattering (DS) were replanned with PBS. Minimum and maximum intensity images from 4DCT were used to introduce flexible smearing in the determination of the beam specific PTV (BSPTV). Datasets from eight 4DCT phases, using ±3% uncertainty in stopping power, and ±3more » mm uncertainty in patient setup in each direction were used to create 8*12*10=960 PBS plans for the evaluation of ten patients. Plans were normalized to provide identical coverage between DS and PBS. Results: The average lung V20, V5, and mean doses were reduced from 29.0%, 35.0%, and 16.4 Gy with DS to 24.6%, 30.6%, and 14.1 Gy with PBS, respectively. The average heart V30 and V45 were reduced from 10.4% and 7.5% in DS to 8.1% and 5.4% for PBS, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum spinal cord, esophagus and heart dose were decreased from 37.1 Gy, 71.7 Gy and 69.2 Gy with DS to 31.3 Gy, 67.9 Gy and 64.6 Gy with PBS. The conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and global maximal dose were improved from 3.2, 0.08, 77.4 Gy with DS to 2.8, 0.04 and 72.1 Gy with PBS. All differences are statistically significant, with p values <0.05, with the exception of the heart V45 (p= 0.146). Conclusion: PBS with BSPTV achieves better organ sparing and improves target coverage using a repainting method for the treatment of thoracic tumors. Incorporating motion-related uncertainties is essential This work was supported by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command under Contract Agreement No. DAMD17-W81XWH-07-2-0121 and W81XWH-09-2-0174.« less