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Title: SU-F-J-203: Retrospective Assessment of Delivered Proton Dose in Prostate Cancer Patients Based On Daily In-Room CT Imaging

Abstract

Purpose: Retrospective calculation of the delivered proton dose in prostate cancer patients based on a unique dataset of daily CT images. Methods: Inter-fractional motion in prostate cancer patients treated at our proton facility is counteracted by water-filled endorectal ballon and bladder filling protocol. Typical plans (XiO, Elekta Instruments AB, Stockholm) for 74 Gy(RBE) sequential boost treatment in 37 fractions include two series of opposing lateral double-scattered proton beams covering the respective iCTV. Stability of fiducial markers and anatomy were checked in 12 patients by daily scheduled in-room control CT (cCT) after immobilization and positioning according to bony anatomy utilizing orthogonal X-ray. In RayStation 4.6 (RaySearch Laboritories AB, Stockholm), all cCTs are delineated retrospectively and the treatment plans were recalculated on the planning CT and the registered cCTs. All fraction doses were accumulated on the planning CT after deformable registration. Parameters of delivered dose to iCTV (D98%>95%, D2%<107%), bladder (V75Gy<15%, V70Gy<25%, V65Gy<30%), rectum (V70Gy<10%, V50Gy<40%) and femoral heads (V50Gy<5%) are compared to those in the treatment plan. Intra-therapy variation is represented in DVH bands. Results: No alarming differences were observed between planned and retrospectively accumulated dose: iCTV constraints were met, except for one patient (D98%=94.6% in non-boosted iCTV). Considered bladder andmore » femoral head values were below the limits. Rectum V70Gy was slightly exceeded (<11.3%) in two patients. First intra-therapy variability analysis in 4 patients showed no timedependent parameter drift, revealed strongest variability for bladder dose. In some fractions, iCTV coverage (D98%) and rectum V70Gy was missed. Conclusion: Double scattered proton plans are accurately delivered to prostate cancer patients due to fractionation effects and the applied precise positioning and immobilization protocols. As a result of rare interventions after daily 3D imaging of the first 12 patients, in-room CT frequency for prostate cancer patients was reduced. The presented study supports this decision. The authors acknowledge the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research for funding the High Precision Radiotherapy Group at the OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (BMBF- 03Z1N51).« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ; ;  [2];  [1];  [3]; ;  [1];  [3];  [3];  [4]
  1. OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)
  2. Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Techenische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)
  3. (Germany)
  4. (DKTK), Dresden, Germany and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; ANATOMY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; BLADDER; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DATASETS; FIDUCIAL MARKERS; HEAD; IMAGE PROCESSING; LIMITING VALUES; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; PLANNING; PROSTATE; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; RECTUM; TIME DEPENDENCE

Citation Formats

Stuetzer, K, Paessler, T, Valentini, C, Thiele, J, Hoelscher, T, Exner, F, now with: University of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg, Krause, M, Richter, C, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Techenische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiooncology, Dresden, and German Cancer Consortium. SU-F-J-203: Retrospective Assessment of Delivered Proton Dose in Prostate Cancer Patients Based On Daily In-Room CT Imaging. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956111.
Stuetzer, K, Paessler, T, Valentini, C, Thiele, J, Hoelscher, T, Exner, F, now with: University of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg, Krause, M, Richter, C, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Techenische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiooncology, Dresden, & German Cancer Consortium. SU-F-J-203: Retrospective Assessment of Delivered Proton Dose in Prostate Cancer Patients Based On Daily In-Room CT Imaging. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956111.
Stuetzer, K, Paessler, T, Valentini, C, Thiele, J, Hoelscher, T, Exner, F, now with: University of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg, Krause, M, Richter, C, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Techenische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiooncology, Dresden, and German Cancer Consortium. Wed . "SU-F-J-203: Retrospective Assessment of Delivered Proton Dose in Prostate Cancer Patients Based On Daily In-Room CT Imaging". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956111.
@article{osti_22642231,
title = {SU-F-J-203: Retrospective Assessment of Delivered Proton Dose in Prostate Cancer Patients Based On Daily In-Room CT Imaging},
author = {Stuetzer, K and Paessler, T and Valentini, C and Thiele, J and Hoelscher, T and Exner, F and now with: University of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg and Krause, M and Richter, C and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Techenische Universitaet Dresden and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiooncology, Dresden and German Cancer Consortium},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Retrospective calculation of the delivered proton dose in prostate cancer patients based on a unique dataset of daily CT images. Methods: Inter-fractional motion in prostate cancer patients treated at our proton facility is counteracted by water-filled endorectal ballon and bladder filling protocol. Typical plans (XiO, Elekta Instruments AB, Stockholm) for 74 Gy(RBE) sequential boost treatment in 37 fractions include two series of opposing lateral double-scattered proton beams covering the respective iCTV. Stability of fiducial markers and anatomy were checked in 12 patients by daily scheduled in-room control CT (cCT) after immobilization and positioning according to bony anatomy utilizing orthogonal X-ray. In RayStation 4.6 (RaySearch Laboritories AB, Stockholm), all cCTs are delineated retrospectively and the treatment plans were recalculated on the planning CT and the registered cCTs. All fraction doses were accumulated on the planning CT after deformable registration. Parameters of delivered dose to iCTV (D98%>95%, D2%<107%), bladder (V75Gy<15%, V70Gy<25%, V65Gy<30%), rectum (V70Gy<10%, V50Gy<40%) and femoral heads (V50Gy<5%) are compared to those in the treatment plan. Intra-therapy variation is represented in DVH bands. Results: No alarming differences were observed between planned and retrospectively accumulated dose: iCTV constraints were met, except for one patient (D98%=94.6% in non-boosted iCTV). Considered bladder and femoral head values were below the limits. Rectum V70Gy was slightly exceeded (<11.3%) in two patients. First intra-therapy variability analysis in 4 patients showed no timedependent parameter drift, revealed strongest variability for bladder dose. In some fractions, iCTV coverage (D98%) and rectum V70Gy was missed. Conclusion: Double scattered proton plans are accurately delivered to prostate cancer patients due to fractionation effects and the applied precise positioning and immobilization protocols. As a result of rare interventions after daily 3D imaging of the first 12 patients, in-room CT frequency for prostate cancer patients was reduced. The presented study supports this decision. The authors acknowledge the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research for funding the High Precision Radiotherapy Group at the OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (BMBF- 03Z1N51).},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956111},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To compute daily dose delivered during radiotherapy, deformable registration needs to be relatively fast, automated, and accurate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of commercial deformable registration software for deforming between two modalities: planning computed tomography (pCT) images acquired for treatment planning and cone beam (CB) CT images acquired prior to each fraction of prostate cancer radiotherapy. Methods: A workflow was designed using MIM Software™ that aligned and deformed pCT into daily CBCT images in two steps: (1) rigid shifts applied after daily CBCT imaging to align patient anatomy to the pCT and (2) normalizedmore » intensity-based deformable registration to account for interfractional anatomical variations. The physician-approved CTV and organ and risk (OAR) contours were deformed from the pCT to daily CBCT over the course of treatment. The same structures were delineated on each daily CBCT by a radiation oncologist. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) mean and standard deviations were calculated to quantify the deformable registration quality for prostate, bladder, rectum and femoral heads. Results: To date, contour comparisons have been analyzed for 31 daily fractions of 2 of 10 of the cohort. Interim analysis shows that right and left femoral head contours demonstrate the highest agreement (DSC: 0.96±0.02) with physician contours. Additionally, deformed bladder (DSC: 0.81±0.09) and prostate (DSC: 0.80±0.07) have good agreement with physician-defined daily contours. Rectum contours have the highest variations (DSC: 0.66±0.10) between the deformed and physician-defined contours on daily CBCT imaging. Conclusion: For structures with relatively high contrast boundaries on CBCT, the MIM automated deformable registration provided accurate representations of the daily contours during treatment delivery. These findings will permit subsequent investigations to automate daily dose computation from CBCT. However, improved methods need to be investigated to improve deformable results for rectum contours.« less
  • Purpose: To enable adaptive intensity modulated proton therapy for sites sensitive to inter-fractional changes on the basis of accurate CBCT-based proton dose calculations. To this aim two CBCT intensity correction methods are considered: planning CT (pCT) to CBCT DIR and projection correction based on pCT DIR prior. Methods: 3 H&N and 3 prostate cancer patients with CBCT images and corresponding projections were used in this study, in addition to pCT and re-planning CT (rpCT) images (H&N only). A virtual CT (vCT) was generated by pCT to CBCT DIR. In a second approach, the vCT was used as prior for scattermore » correction of the CBCT projections to yield a CBCTcor image. BEV 2D range maps of SFUD IMPT plans were compared. For the prostate cases, the geometric accuracy of the vCT was also evaluated by contour comparison to physician delineation of the CBCTcor and original CBCT. Results: SFUD dose calculations on vCT and CBCTcor were found to be within 3mm for 97% to 99% of 2D range maps. Median range differences compared to rpCT were below 0.5mm. Analysis showed that the DIR-based vCT approach exhibits inaccuracies in the pelvic region due to the very low soft-tissue contrast in the CBCT. The CBCTcor approach yielded results closer to the original CBCT in terms of DICE coefficients than the vCT (median 0.91 vs 0.81) for targets and OARs. In general, the CBCTcor approach was less affected by inaccuracies of the DIR used during the generation of the vCT prior. Conclusion: Both techniques yield 3D CBCT images with intensities equivalent to diagnostic CT and appear suitable for IMPT dose calculation for most sites. For H&N cases, no considerable differences between the two techniques were found, while improved results of the CBCTcor were observed for pelvic cases due to the reduced sensitivity to registration inaccuracies. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (MAP); Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (01IB13001)« less
  • Purpose: With the implementation of Cone-beam Computed-Tomography (CBCT) in proton treatment, we introduces a quick and effective tool to verify the patient’s daily setup and geometry changes based on the Water-Equivalent-Thickness Projection-Image(WETPI) from individual beam angle. Methods: A bilateral head neck cancer(HNC) patient previously treated via VMAT was used in this study. The patient received 35 daily CBCT during the whole treatment and there is no significant weight change. The CT numbers of daily CBCTs were corrected by mapping the CT numbers from simulation CT via Deformable Image Registration(DIR). IMPT plan was generated using 4-field IMPT robust optimization (3.5% rangemore » and 3mm setup uncertainties) with beam angle 60, 135, 300, 225 degree. WETPI within CTV through all beam directions were calculated. 3%/3mm gamma index(GI) were used to provide a quantitative comparison between initial sim-CT and mapped daily CBCT. To simulate an extreme case where human error is involved, a couch bar was manually inserted in front of beam angle 225 degree of one CBCT. WETPI was compared in this scenario. Results: The average of GI passing rate of this patient from different beam angles throughout the treatment course is 91.5 ± 8.6. In the cases with low passing rate, it was found that the difference between shoulder and neck angle as well as the head rest often causes major deviation. This indicates that the most challenge in treating HNC is the setup around neck area. In the extreme case where a couch bar is accidently inserted in the beam line, GI passing rate drops to 52 from 95. Conclusion: WETPI and quantitative gamma analysis give clinicians, therapists and physicists a quick feedback of the patient’s setup accuracy or geometry changes. The tool could effectively avoid some human errors. Furthermore, this tool could be used potentially as an initial signal to trigger plan adaptation.« less
  • Purpose: Recurrent chordomas are difficult to control locally. This dosimetric study investigates the feasibility of dose escalation to hypoxic regions, visualized on FMISO-PET, while respecting the dose constraints to the neighboring normal tissues/organs. We propose to deliver a higher dose to the areas of hypoxia (84.5Gy) using IMPT with the goal of improving local control. Methods: We currently have four patients with hypoxic subvolumes (HSV) greater than 10cc from the FMISO-PET image. The HSV was delineated based on the standardized uptake values of greater than 1.4 times of the muscle mean. Gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated using planning CTmore » with the assistance of MRI fusion. The dose scheme is 50.4Gy RBE to CTV in 1.8Gy fractions, followed by an integrated boost of 27.0Gy RBE to GTV in 1.8Gy fractions and 34.5Gy RBE to HSV in 2.3Gy fractions. IMPT integrated boost plans were optimized with multi-criteria optimization (MCO). Posterior-anterior beam angles were used for these plans. We also propose using two posterior oblique fields to boost HSV to spare the skin folding. A medium spot size with 8mm to 15 mm (σ) in air at isocenter with energies from 220 MeV down to 90 MeV was used. Aperture was used for the medium spot size. A small spot size of 2.5 mm to 4.5 mm (σ) in air at isocenter with energies from 240 MeV down to 70 MeV was also proposed. Target coverage and dose to OARs were evaluated. Results: For the sacral chordoma patient that has been planned, the target homogeneity index is 3.2% for HSV, 55.9% for CTV and 11.9% for GTV. The max dose is 77GyRBE to rectum, 86.2GyRBE to sacral nerves and 73.9GyRBE to cauda equina. Conclusion: IMPT with integrated high dose boost to HSV determined from FMISO PET image is feasible. OAR dose constraints were met.« less
  • Purpose: Daily CT-based three-dimensional image-guided and adaptive (CTIGRT-ART) proton therapy system was designed and developed. We also evaluated the effectiveness of the CTIGRT-ART. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed in three lung cancer patients: Proton treatment planning was performed using CT image datasets acquired by Toshiba Aquilion ONE. Planning target volume and surrounding organs were contoured by a well-trained radiation oncologist. Dose distribution was optimized using 180-deg. and 270-deg. two fields in passive scattering proton therapy. Well commissioned Simplified Monte Carlo algorithm was used as dose calculation engine. Daily consecutive CT image datasets was acquired by an in-room CT (Toshiba Aquilionmore » LB). In our in-house program, two image registrations for bone and tumor were performed to shift the isocenter using treatment CT image dataset. Subsequently, dose recalculation was performed after the shift of the isocenter. When the dose distribution after the tumor registration exhibits change of dosimetric parameter of CTV D90% compared to the initial plan, an additional process of was performed that the range shifter thickness was optimized. Dose distribution with CTV D90% for the bone registration, the tumor registration only and adaptive plan with the tumor registration was compared to the initial plan. Results: In the bone registration, tumor dose coverage was decreased by 16% on average (Maximum: 56%). The tumor registration shows better coverage than the bone registration, however the coverage was also decreased by 9% (Maximum: 22%) The adaptive plan shows similar dose coverage of the tumor (Average: 2%, Maximum: 7%). Conclusion: There is a high possibility that only image registration for bone and tumor may reduce tumor coverage. Thus, our proposed methodology of image guidance and adaptive planning using the range adaptation after tumor registration would be effective for proton therapy. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).« less