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Title: SU-F-J-200: An Improved Method for Event Selection in Compton Camera Imaging for Particle Therapy

Abstract

Purpose: The uncertainty in the beam range in particle therapy limits the conformality of the dose distributions. Compton scatter cameras (CC), which measure the prompt gamma rays produced by nuclear interactions in the patient tissue, can reduce this uncertainty by producing 3D images confirming the particle beam range and dose delivery. However, the high intensity and short time windows of the particle beams limit the number of gammas detected. We attempt to address this problem by developing a method for filtering gamma ray scattering events from the background by applying the known gamma ray spectrum. Methods: We used a 4 stage Compton camera to record in list mode the energy deposition and scatter positions of gammas from a Co-60 source. Each CC stage contained a 4×4 array of CdZnTe crystal. To produce images, we used a back-projection algorithm and four filtering Methods: basic, energy windowing, delta energy (ΔE), or delta scattering angle (Δθ). Basic filtering requires events to be physically consistent. Energy windowing requires event energy to fall within a defined range. ΔE filtering selects events with the minimum difference between the measured and a known gamma energy (1.17 and 1.33 MeV for Co-60). Δθ filtering selects events with themore » minimum difference between the measured scattering angle and the angle corresponding to a known gamma energy. Results: Energy window filtering reduced the FWHM from 197.8 mm for basic filtering to 78.3 mm. ΔE and Δθ filtering achieved the best results, FWHMs of 64.3 and 55.6 mm, respectively. In general, Δθ filtering selected events with scattering angles < 40°, while ΔE filtering selected events with angles > 60°. Conclusion: Filtering CC events improved the quality and resolution of the corresponding images. ΔE and Δθ filtering produced similar results but each favored different events.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3]
  1. UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
  2. University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  3. University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22634796
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ALGORITHMS; ANIMAL TISSUES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; CAMERAS; COBALT 60; ENERGY ABSORPTION; FILTERS; GAMMA RADIATION; GAMMA SPECTRA; IMAGES; PARTICLE BEAMS; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SCATTERING; CDZNTE SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS

Citation Formats

Mackin, D, Beddar, S, Polf, J, Draeger, E, and Peterson, S. SU-F-J-200: An Improved Method for Event Selection in Compton Camera Imaging for Particle Therapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956108.
Mackin, D, Beddar, S, Polf, J, Draeger, E, & Peterson, S. SU-F-J-200: An Improved Method for Event Selection in Compton Camera Imaging for Particle Therapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956108.
Mackin, D, Beddar, S, Polf, J, Draeger, E, and Peterson, S. Wed . "SU-F-J-200: An Improved Method for Event Selection in Compton Camera Imaging for Particle Therapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956108.
@article{osti_22634796,
title = {SU-F-J-200: An Improved Method for Event Selection in Compton Camera Imaging for Particle Therapy},
author = {Mackin, D and Beddar, S and Polf, J and Draeger, E and Peterson, S},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The uncertainty in the beam range in particle therapy limits the conformality of the dose distributions. Compton scatter cameras (CC), which measure the prompt gamma rays produced by nuclear interactions in the patient tissue, can reduce this uncertainty by producing 3D images confirming the particle beam range and dose delivery. However, the high intensity and short time windows of the particle beams limit the number of gammas detected. We attempt to address this problem by developing a method for filtering gamma ray scattering events from the background by applying the known gamma ray spectrum. Methods: We used a 4 stage Compton camera to record in list mode the energy deposition and scatter positions of gammas from a Co-60 source. Each CC stage contained a 4×4 array of CdZnTe crystal. To produce images, we used a back-projection algorithm and four filtering Methods: basic, energy windowing, delta energy (ΔE), or delta scattering angle (Δθ). Basic filtering requires events to be physically consistent. Energy windowing requires event energy to fall within a defined range. ΔE filtering selects events with the minimum difference between the measured and a known gamma energy (1.17 and 1.33 MeV for Co-60). Δθ filtering selects events with the minimum difference between the measured scattering angle and the angle corresponding to a known gamma energy. Results: Energy window filtering reduced the FWHM from 197.8 mm for basic filtering to 78.3 mm. ΔE and Δθ filtering achieved the best results, FWHMs of 64.3 and 55.6 mm, respectively. In general, Δθ filtering selected events with scattering angles < 40°, while ΔE filtering selected events with angles > 60°. Conclusion: Filtering CC events improved the quality and resolution of the corresponding images. ΔE and Δθ filtering produced similar results but each favored different events.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956108},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To test two new techniques, the distance-of-closest approach (DCA) and Compton line (CL) filters, developed as a means of improving the spatial resolution of Compton camera (CC) imaging. Methods: Gammas emitted from {sup 22}Na, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 60}Co point sources were measured with a prototype 3-stage CC. The energy deposited and position of each interaction in each stage were recorded and used to calculate a “cone-of-origin” for each gamma that scattered twice in the CC. A DCA filter was developed which finds the shortest distance from the gamma’s cone-of-origin surface to the location of the gamma source. Themore » DCA filter was applied to the data to determine the initial energy of the gamma and to remove “bad” interactions that only contribute noise to the image. Additionally, a CL filter, which removes gamma events that do not follow the theoretical predictions of the Compton scatter equation, was used to further remove “bad” interactions from the measured data. Then images were reconstructed with raw, unfiltered data, DCA filtered data, and DCA+CL filtered data and the achievable image resolution of each dataset was compared. Results: Spatial resolutions of ∼2 mm, and better than 2 mm, were achievable with the DCA and DCA+CL filtered data, respectively, compared to > 5 mm for the raw, unfiltered data. Conclusion: In many special cases in medical imaging where information about the source position may be known, such as proton radiotherapy range verification, the application of the DCA and CL filters can result in considerable improvements in the achievable spatial resolutions of Compton imaging.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the role of 2D kilovoltage (kV) imaging to complement cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging in a shift threshold based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) strategy for conventional lung radiotherapy. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted by analyzing IGRT couch shift trends for 15 patients that received lung radiation therapy to evaluate the benefit of performing orthogonal kV imaging prior to CBCT imaging. Herein, a shift threshold based IGRT protocol was applied, which would mandate additional CBCT verification if the applied patient shifts exceeded 3 mm to avoid intraobserver variability in CBCT registration and to confirm table shifts.more » For each patient, two IGRT strategies: kV + CBCT and CBCT alone, were compared and the recorded patient shifts were categorized into whether additional CBCT acquisition would have been mandated or not. The effectiveness of either strategy was gauged by the likelihood of needing additional CBCT imaging for accurate patient set-up. Results: The use of CBCT alone was 6 times more likely to require an additional CBCT than KV+CBCT, for a 3 mm shift threshold (88% vs 14%). The likelihood of additional CBCT verification generally increased with lower shift thresholds, and was significantly lower when kV+CBCT was used (7% with 5 mm shift threshold, 36% with 2 mm threshold), than with CBCT alone (61% with 5 mm shift threshold, 97% with 2 mm threshold). With CBCT alone, treatment time increased by 2.2 min and dose increased by 1.9 cGy per fraction on average due to additional CBCT with a 3mm shift threshold. Conclusion: The benefit of kV imaging to screen for gross misalignments led to more accurate CBCT based patient localization compared with using CBCT alone. The subsequently reduced need for additional CBCT verification will minimize treatment time and result in less overall patient imaging dose.« less
  • Purpose: A correct body contour is essential for the accuracy of dose calculation in radiation therapy. While modern medical imaging technologies provide highly accurate representations of body contours, there are times when a patient’s anatomy cannot be fully captured or there is a lack of easy access to CT/MRI scanning. Recently, handheld cameras have emerged that are capable of performing three dimensional (3D) scans of patient surface anatomy. By combining 3D camera and medical imaging data, the patient’s surface contour can be fully captured. Methods: A proof-of-concept system matches a patient surface model, created using a handheld stereo depth cameramore » (DC), to the available areas of a body contour segmented from a CT scan. The matched surface contour is then converted to a DICOM structure and added to the CT dataset to provide additional contour information. In order to evaluate the system, a 3D model of a patient was created by segmenting the body contour with a treatment planning system (TPS) and fabricated with a 3D printer. A DC and associated software were used to create a 3D scan of the printed phantom. The surface created by the camera was then registered to a CT model that had been cropped to simulate missing scan data. The aligned surface was then imported into the TPS and compared with the originally segmented contour. Results: The RMS error for the alignment between the camera and cropped CT models was 2.26 mm. Mean distance between the aligned camera surface and ground truth model was −1.23 +/−2.47 mm. Maximum deviations were < 1 cm and occurred in areas of high concavity or where anatomy was close to the couch. Conclusion: The proof-of-concept study shows an accurate, easy and affordable method to extend medical imaging for radiation therapy planning using 3D cameras without additional radiation. Intel provided the camera hardware used in this study.« less
  • Purpose: Fast neutron therapy is offered at the University of Washington Medical Center for treatment of selected cancers. The hardware and control systems of the UW Clinical Neutron Therapy System are undergoing upgrades to enable delivery of IMNT. To clinically implement IMNT, dose verification tools need to be developed. We propose a portal imaging system that relies on the creation of positron emitting isotopes ({sup 11}C and {sup 15}O) through (n, 2n) reactions with a PMMA plate placed below the patient. After field delivery, the plate is retrieved from the vault and imaged using a reader that detects the annihilationmore » photons. The pattern of activity produced in the plate provides information to reconstruct the neutron fluence map that can be compared to fluence maps from Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations to verify treatment delivery. We have previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of the portal imaging system (GATE simulations) and the beam line (MCNP simulations). In this work, initial measurements using a prototype system are presented. Methods: Custom electronics were developed for BGO detectors read out with photomultiplier tubes (previous generation PET detectors from a CTI ECAT 953 scanner). Two detectors were placed in coincidence, with a detector separation of 2 cm. Custom software was developed to create the crystal look up tables and perform a limited angle planar reconstruction with a stochastic normalization. To test the initial capabilities of the system, PMMA squares were irradiated with neutrons at a depth of 1.5 cm and read out using the prototype system. Doses ranging from 10–200 cGy were delivered. Results: Using the prototype system, dose differences in the therapeutic range could be determined. Conclusion: The prototype portal imaging system is capable of detecting neutron doses as low as 10–50 cGy and shows great promise as a patient QA tool for IMNT.« less
  • Purpose: To compare proliferation and blood flow in pelvic and thoracic bone marrow 1 year after pelvic chemoradiation. Methods: Sixteen pelvic cancer patients were enrolled in an IRB-approved protocol to acquire FLT PET images during radiation therapy simulation (baseline) and 1 year after chemoradiation therapy. Three subjects also had optional O-15 water PET images acquired 1 year after chemoradiation therapy. Baseline FLT PET images were used to create IMRT plans to spare pelvic bone marrow identified as regions with FLT SUV ≥ 2 without compromising PTV coverage or OAR sparing. Marrow VOIs were defined using a 50% maximum pixel valuemore » threshold on baseline FLT PET images (VIEW, PMOD version 3.5) in the sacrum and thoracic spine representing irradiated and non-irradiated regions, respectively. FLT PET and O-15 water PET images acquired 1 year after therapy were co-registered to baseline images (FUSION PMOD) and the same VOIs were used to measure proliferation (FLT SUV) and blood flow (O-15 water uptake). Separate image-based input functions were used for blood flow quantitation in each VOI. Results: Mean 1 year FLT SUV in sacral and thoracic VOIs for were 1.1 ± 0.4 and 6.5 ± 1.7, respectively for N = 16 subjects and were 1.2 ± 0.2 and 5.6 ± 1.6, respectively for N = 3 subjects who also underwent O-15 water imaging. Blood flow measures in equivalent sacral and thoracic marrow regions (N = 3) were 21.3 ± 8.7 and 18.3 ± 4.9 mL/min/100mL respectively. Conclusion: Decreased bone marrow proliferation measured by FLT SUV does not appear to correspond to decreased blood flow as measured by O-15 water PET imaging. Based on this small sample at a single time point, reduced blood supply does not explain reductions in bone marrow proliferative activity 1 year after chemoradiation therapy.« less