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Title: SU-F-I-15: Evaluation of a New MR-Compatible Respiratory Motion Device at 3T

Abstract

Purpose: Recent advances in MRI-guided radiotherapy has inspired the development of MRI-compatible motion devices that simulate patient periodic motion in the scanner, particularly respiratory motion. Most commercial devices rely on non MR-safe ferromagnetic stepper motors which are not practical for regular QA testing. This work evaluates the motion performance of a new fully MRI compatible respiratory motion device at 3T. Methods: The QUASAR™ MRI-compatible respiratory motion phantom has been recently developed by Modus QA Inc., London, ON, Canada. The prototype is constructed from diamagnetic materials with linear motion generated using MRI-compatible piezoelectric motors that can be safely inserted in the scanner bore. The tumor was represented by a fillable sphere and is attached to the linear motion generator. The spherical tumor-representative and its surroundings were filled with different concentrations of MnCl2 to produce realistic relaxation times. The motion was generated along the longitudinal (H/F) axis of the bore using sinusoidal reference waveform (amplitude = 15 mm, frequency 0.25 Hz). Imaging was then performed on 3T Philips Achieva using a 32-channel cardiac coil. Fast 2D spoiled gradient-echo was used with a spatial resolution of 1.8 × 1.8 mm{sup 2} and slice thickness of 4 mm. The motion waveform was then measuredmore » on the resultant image series by tracking the centroid of the sphere through the time series. This image-derived measured motion was compared to the software-generated reference waveform. Results: No visible distortions from the device were observed on the images. Excellent agreement between the measured and the reference waveforms were obtained. Negligible motion was observed in the lateral (R/L) direction. Conclusion: Our investigation demonstrates that this piezo-electric motor design is effective at simulating periodic motion and is a potential candidate for MRI-radiotherapy respiratory motion simulation. Future work should focus on evaluating non-sinusoidal waveforms, fast 3D pulse sequences, and perform dosimetric QA.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ;  [3];  [2]; ;  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada)
  2. (Canada)
  3. Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22626787
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTER CODES; IMAGES; NEOPLASMS; NMR IMAGING; PATIENTS; PERFORMANCE; PERIODICITY; PHANTOMS; PIEZOELECTRICITY; RADIOTHERAPY; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; THICKNESS; WAVE FORMS

Citation Formats

Soliman, A, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Chugh, B, Keller, B, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Sahgal, A, Song, W, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON. SU-F-I-15: Evaluation of a New MR-Compatible Respiratory Motion Device at 3T. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955843.
Soliman, A, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Chugh, B, Keller, B, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Sahgal, A, Song, W, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, & University of Toronto, Toronto, ON. SU-F-I-15: Evaluation of a New MR-Compatible Respiratory Motion Device at 3T. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955843.
Soliman, A, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Chugh, B, Keller, B, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Sahgal, A, Song, W, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON. 2016. "SU-F-I-15: Evaluation of a New MR-Compatible Respiratory Motion Device at 3T". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955843.
@article{osti_22626787,
title = {SU-F-I-15: Evaluation of a New MR-Compatible Respiratory Motion Device at 3T},
author = {Soliman, A and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON and Chugh, B and Keller, B and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON and Sahgal, A and Song, W and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Recent advances in MRI-guided radiotherapy has inspired the development of MRI-compatible motion devices that simulate patient periodic motion in the scanner, particularly respiratory motion. Most commercial devices rely on non MR-safe ferromagnetic stepper motors which are not practical for regular QA testing. This work evaluates the motion performance of a new fully MRI compatible respiratory motion device at 3T. Methods: The QUASAR™ MRI-compatible respiratory motion phantom has been recently developed by Modus QA Inc., London, ON, Canada. The prototype is constructed from diamagnetic materials with linear motion generated using MRI-compatible piezoelectric motors that can be safely inserted in the scanner bore. The tumor was represented by a fillable sphere and is attached to the linear motion generator. The spherical tumor-representative and its surroundings were filled with different concentrations of MnCl2 to produce realistic relaxation times. The motion was generated along the longitudinal (H/F) axis of the bore using sinusoidal reference waveform (amplitude = 15 mm, frequency 0.25 Hz). Imaging was then performed on 3T Philips Achieva using a 32-channel cardiac coil. Fast 2D spoiled gradient-echo was used with a spatial resolution of 1.8 × 1.8 mm{sup 2} and slice thickness of 4 mm. The motion waveform was then measured on the resultant image series by tracking the centroid of the sphere through the time series. This image-derived measured motion was compared to the software-generated reference waveform. Results: No visible distortions from the device were observed on the images. Excellent agreement between the measured and the reference waveforms were obtained. Negligible motion was observed in the lateral (R/L) direction. Conclusion: Our investigation demonstrates that this piezo-electric motor design is effective at simulating periodic motion and is a potential candidate for MRI-radiotherapy respiratory motion simulation. Future work should focus on evaluating non-sinusoidal waveforms, fast 3D pulse sequences, and perform dosimetric QA.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955843},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: The purpose of this present work was to fabricate an in-house software based respiratory monitoring, controlling and breath-hold device using computer software programme which guides the patient to have uniform breath hold in response to request during the gated radiotherapy. Methods: The respiratory controlling device consists of a computer, inhouse software, video goggles, a highly sensitive sensor for measurement of distance, mounting systems, a camera, a respiratory signal device, a speaker and a visual indicator. The computer is used to display the respiratory movements of the patient with digital as well as analogue respiration indicators during the respiration cycle,more » to control, breath-hold and analyze the respiratory movement using indigenously developed software. Results: Studies were conducted with anthropomophic phantoms by simulating the respiratory motion on phantoms and recording the respective movements using the respiratory monitoring device. The results show good agreement between the simulated and measured movements. Further studies were conducted for 60 cancer patients with several types of cancers in the thoracic region. The respiratory movement cycles for each fraction of radiotherapy treatment were recorded and compared. Alarm indications are provided in the system to indicate when the patient breathing movement exceeds the threshold level. This will help the patient to maintain uniform breath hold during the radiotherapy treatment. Our preliminary clinical test results indicate that our device is highly reliable and able to maintain the uniform respiratory motion and breathe hold during the entire course of gated radiotherapy treatment. Conclusion: An indigenous respiratory monitoring device to guide the patient to have uniform breath hold device was fabricated. The alarm feature and the visual waveform indicator in the system guide the patient to have normal respiration. The signal from the device can be connected to the radiation unit in near future to carry out the gated radiotherapy treatment.« less
  • Techniques have been developed for reducing motion blurring artifacts by using respiratory gated computed tomography (CT) in sinogram space and quantitatively evaluating the artifact reduction. A synthetic sinogram was built from multiple scans intercepting a respiratory gating window. A gated CT image was then reconstructed using the filtered back-projection algorithm. Wedge phantoms, developed for quantifying the motion artifact reduction, were scanned while being moved using a computer-controlled linear stage. The resulting artifacts appeared between the high and low density regions as an apparent feature with a Hounsfield value that was the average of the two regions. A CT profile throughmore » these regions was fit using two error functions, each modeling the partial-volume averaging characteristics for the unmoving phantom. The motion artifact was quantified by determining the apparent distance between the two functions. The blurring artifact had a linear relationship with both the speed and the tangent of the wedge angles. When gating was employed, the blurring artifact was reduced systematically at the air-phantom interface. The gated image of phantoms moving at 20 mm/s showed similar blurring artifacts as the nongated image of phantoms moving at 10 mm/s. Nine patients were also scanned using the synchronized respiratory motion technique. Image artifacts were evaluated in the diaphragm, where high contrast interfaces intercepted the imaging plane. For patients, this respiratory gating technique reduced the blurring artifacts by 9%-41% at the lung-diaphragm interface.« less
  • Purpose: Respiratory correlated computed tomography has been shown to be effective for evaluation of breathing-induced motion of pulmonary tumors. This study investigated whether a single four-dimensional CT study (4D-CT) is representative and sufficient for treatment planning in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Four repeated helical 4D-CT studies were acquired every 10 min for 10 patients with 14 pulmonary metastases. Patients remained immobilized in a stereotactic body frame (SBF) for 30 min; abdominal compression was applied to seven patients. Using amplitude based sorting, eight phases equally distributed over the breathing cycle were reconstructed for each 4D-CT study. Tumor positionmore » was defined in a total of 406 CT series and variability of breathing motion and mean tumor position were evaluated. Results: Peak-to-peak tumor motion was 9.9 mm {+-} 6.8 mm (mean {+-} standard deviation) and 9.0 mm {+-} 7.4 mm at time point 0 min (t{sub 0}) and t{sub 30}, respectively. In one patient with poor pulmonary function, continuous increase of breathing motion from 17.4 mm at t{sub 0} to 28.3 mm at t{sub 30} was seen. In five and two lesions, respectively, a drift of the mean tumor position greater than 3 mm and 5 mm was observed. A borderline significance was calculated for larger tumor position variability in midventilation phases compared with peak-ventilation phases of the breathing cycle (p = 0.08). Conclusion: Treatment planning based on a single 4D-CT study is reliable for the majority of patients. Increased intrafractional uncertainties were seen for patients with poor pulmonary function and with tumors located in the lower lobe.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the stereotactic body frame (SBF), with or without a diaphragm press or a breathing cycle monitoring device (Abches), in controlling the range of lung tumor motion, by tracking the real-time position of fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: The trajectories of gold markers in the lung were tracked with the real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The SBF was used for patient immobilization and the diaphragm press and Abches were used to actively control breathing and for self-controlled respiration, respectively. Tracking was performed in five setups, with and without immobilization and respiration control. The results were evaluatedmore » using the effective range, which was defined as the range that includes 95% of all the recorded marker positions in each setup. Results: The SBF, with or without a diaphragm press or Abches, did not yield effective ranges of marker motion which were significantly different from setups that did not use these materials. The differences in the effective marker ranges in the upper lobes for all the patient setups were less than 1mm. Larger effective ranges were obtained for the markers in the middle or lower lobes. Conclusion: The effectiveness of controlling respiratory-induced organ motion by using the SBF+diaphragm press or SBF + Abches patient setups were highly dependent on the individual patient reaction to the use of these materials and the location of the markers. They may be considered for lung tumors in the lower lobes, but are not necessary for tumors in the upper lobes.« less
  • Purpose: Deformable Image Registration (DIR) is gaining wider clinical acceptance in radiation oncology. The aim of this work is to characterise a DIR algorithm on publically available 4DCT lung images, such that comparison can be performed against other algorithms. We propose an evaluation method of registration accuracy that takes into account the initial misregistration of the datasets. Methods: The “DIR Validation dataset” ( http://www.creatis.insa-lyon.fr/rio/dir{sub v}alidation{sub d}ata ) provides benchmark data for evaluating 3D CT registration algorithms. It consists of six 4DCT lung datasets (1x1x2mm resolution) with 100 landmarks identified on the end-exhalation and end-inhalation phases. Images were registered to end-inhalationmore » using proprietary form of optical flow in commercial software (Mirada RTx, Mirada Medical, UK). Target registration error was measured before and after DIR, referred to as Initial Registration Error (IRE) and Final Registration Error (FRE). Results: The mean FRE over all landmarks was 1.37±1.81mm. FRE increased with IRE. Mean FRE of 0.86, 0.86, 1.53, 3.38, 4.45, 7.58mm was observed for IRE in the ranges 0–5, 5–10, 10–15, 15–20, 20–25, >25 mm. Higher FRE was observed at the inferior lung, where IRE was greater. Out-of-plane motion contributed more to IRE, and therefore to FRE. Maximum FRE of 20.6mm was observed for IRE of 32.1mm, located at the posterior of the middle lobe for dataset 2. Sub-voxel registration accuracy was achieved for up to 10mm IRE, and increased linearly at 0.3mm FRE/mm IRE thereafter. Conclusion: Publicly available clinical datasets enable algorithms to be compared objectively between publications. However, only reporting average TRE after registration can be misleading as the ability of an algorithm to correct for displacements varies with the IRE or position within the patient. Consequently, algorithms should be characterized using the entire range of initial displacements. For the algorithm assessed, clinically acceptable error within one voxel was achieved for IRE of up to 15mm. TK, AL, and MG are employees of Mirada Medical.« less