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Title: SU-F-SPS-05: Experimental Validation of Peripheral Dose Distribution of Electron Beams for Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo Algorithm

Abstract

Purpose: In this study, the two available calculation algorithms of the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system(TPS), the electron Monte Carlo(eMC) and General Gaussian Pencil Beam(GGPB) algorithms were used to compare measured and calculated peripheral dose distribution of electron beams. Methods: Peripheral dose measurements were carried out for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 22 MeV electron beams of Varian Triology machine using parallel plate ionization chamber and EBT3 films in the slab phantom. Measurements were performed for 6×6, 10×10 and 25×25cm{sup 2} cone sizes at dmax of each energy up to 20cm beyond the field edges. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained for each energy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. Dose distribution measured using parallel plate ionization chamber and EBT3 film and calculated by eMC and GGPB algorithms were compared. The measured and calculated data were then compared to find which algorithm calculates peripheral dose distribution more accurately. Results: The agreement between measurement and eMC was better than GGPB. The TPS underestimated the out of field doses. The difference between measured and calculated doses increase with the cone size. The largest deviation between calculatedmore » and parallel plate ionization chamber measured dose is less than 4.93% for eMC, but it can increase up to 7.51% for GGPB. For film measurement, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 98.2% and 92.7% for eMC and GGPB respectively for all field sizes and energies. Conclusion: Our results show that the Monte Carlo algorithm for electron planning in Eclipse is more accurate than previous algorithms for peripheral dose distributions. It must be emphasized that the use of GGPB for planning large field treatments with 6 MeV could lead to inaccuracies of clinical significance.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624422
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ALGORITHMS; CALIBRATION; ELECTRON BEAMS; IONIZATION; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; IRRADIATION; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHANTOMS; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; VALIDATION

Citation Formats

Cebe, M, Pacaci, P, Mabhouti, H, Codel, G, Sanli, E, Serin, E, Kucuk, N, Kucukmorkoc, E, Doyuran, M, Canoglu, D, Altinok, A, Acar, H, and Caglar Ozkok, H. SU-F-SPS-05: Experimental Validation of Peripheral Dose Distribution of Electron Beams for Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo Algorithm. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955680.
Cebe, M, Pacaci, P, Mabhouti, H, Codel, G, Sanli, E, Serin, E, Kucuk, N, Kucukmorkoc, E, Doyuran, M, Canoglu, D, Altinok, A, Acar, H, & Caglar Ozkok, H. SU-F-SPS-05: Experimental Validation of Peripheral Dose Distribution of Electron Beams for Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo Algorithm. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955680.
Cebe, M, Pacaci, P, Mabhouti, H, Codel, G, Sanli, E, Serin, E, Kucuk, N, Kucukmorkoc, E, Doyuran, M, Canoglu, D, Altinok, A, Acar, H, and Caglar Ozkok, H. 2016. "SU-F-SPS-05: Experimental Validation of Peripheral Dose Distribution of Electron Beams for Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo Algorithm". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955680.
@article{osti_22624422,
title = {SU-F-SPS-05: Experimental Validation of Peripheral Dose Distribution of Electron Beams for Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo Algorithm},
author = {Cebe, M and Pacaci, P and Mabhouti, H and Codel, G and Sanli, E and Serin, E and Kucuk, N and Kucukmorkoc, E and Doyuran, M and Canoglu, D and Altinok, A and Acar, H and Caglar Ozkok, H},
abstractNote = {Purpose: In this study, the two available calculation algorithms of the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system(TPS), the electron Monte Carlo(eMC) and General Gaussian Pencil Beam(GGPB) algorithms were used to compare measured and calculated peripheral dose distribution of electron beams. Methods: Peripheral dose measurements were carried out for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 22 MeV electron beams of Varian Triology machine using parallel plate ionization chamber and EBT3 films in the slab phantom. Measurements were performed for 6×6, 10×10 and 25×25cm{sup 2} cone sizes at dmax of each energy up to 20cm beyond the field edges. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained for each energy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. Dose distribution measured using parallel plate ionization chamber and EBT3 film and calculated by eMC and GGPB algorithms were compared. The measured and calculated data were then compared to find which algorithm calculates peripheral dose distribution more accurately. Results: The agreement between measurement and eMC was better than GGPB. The TPS underestimated the out of field doses. The difference between measured and calculated doses increase with the cone size. The largest deviation between calculated and parallel plate ionization chamber measured dose is less than 4.93% for eMC, but it can increase up to 7.51% for GGPB. For film measurement, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 98.2% and 92.7% for eMC and GGPB respectively for all field sizes and energies. Conclusion: Our results show that the Monte Carlo algorithm for electron planning in Eclipse is more accurate than previous algorithms for peripheral dose distributions. It must be emphasized that the use of GGPB for planning large field treatments with 6 MeV could lead to inaccuracies of clinical significance.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955680},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to validate Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo (Algorithm for routine clinical uses. Methods: The PTW inhomogeneity phantom (T40037) with different combination of heterogeneous slabs has been CT-scanned with Philips Brilliance 16 slice scanner. The phantom contains blocks of Rando Alderson materials mimicking lung, Polystyrene (Tissue), PTFE (Bone) and PMAA. The phantom has 30×30×2.5 cm base plate with 2cm recesses to insert inhomogeneity. The detector systems used in this study are diode, tlds and Gafchromic EBT2 films. The diode and tlds were included in CT scans. The CT sets are transferred to Eclipse treatment planningmore » system. Several plans have been created with Eclipse Monte Carlo (EMC) algorithm 11.0.21. Measurements have been carried out in Varian TrueBeam machine for energy from 6–22mev. Results: The measured and calculated doses agreed very well for tissue like media. The agreement was reasonably okay for the presence of lung inhomogeneity. The point dose agreement was within 3.5% and Gamma passing rate at 3%/3mm was greater than 93% except for 6Mev(85%). The disagreement can reach as high as 10% in the presence of bone inhomogeneity. This is due to eclipse reporting dose to the medium as opposed to the dose to the water as in conventional calculation engines. Conclusion: Care must be taken when using Varian Eclipse EMC algorithm for dose calculation for routine clinical uses. The algorithm dose not report dose to water in which most of the clinical experiences are based on rather it just reports dose to medium directly. In the presence of inhomogeneity such as bone, the dose discrepancy can be as high as 10% or even more depending on the location of normalization point or volume. As Radiation oncology as an empirical science, care must be taken before using EMC reported monitor units for clinical uses.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of electron dose distribution calculated by the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for use with recent commercially available bolus electron conformal therapy (ECT). Methods: eMC-calculated electron dose distributions for bolus ECT have been compared to those previously measured for cylindrical phantoms (retromolar trigone and nose), whose axial cross sections were based on the mid-PTV CT anatomy for each site. The phantoms consisted of SR4 muscle substitute, SR4 bone substitute, and air. The bolus ECT treatment plans were imported into the Eclipse treatment planning system and calculated using the maximum allowable histories (2×10{sup 9}),more » resulting in a statistical error of <0.2%. Smoothing was not used for these calculations. Differences between eMC-calculated and measured dose distributions were evaluated in terms of absolute dose difference as well as distance to agreement (DTA). Results: Results from the eMC for the retromolar trigone phantom showed 89% (41/46) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of −0.12% with a standard deviation of 2.56%. Results for the nose phantom showed 95% (54/57) of dose points within 3% dose difference or 3 mm DTA. There was an average dose difference of 1.12% with a standard deviation of 3.03%. Dose calculation times for the retromolar trigone and nose treatment plans were 15 min and 22 min, respectively, using 16 processors (Intel Xeon E5-2690, 2.9 GHz) on a Varian Eclipse framework agent server (FAS). Results of this study were consistent with those previously reported for accuracy of the eMC electron dose algorithm and for the .decimal, Inc. pencil beam redefinition algorithm used to plan the bolus. Conclusion: These results show that the accuracy of the Eclipse eMC algorithm is suitable for clinical implementation of bolus ECT.« less
  • The present study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium, titanium alloy, and stainless steel hip prostheses on dose distribution based on the Monte Carlo simulation method, as well as the accuracy of the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 and 18 MV photon energies. In the present study the pencil beam convolution (PBC) method implemented in the Eclipse TPS was compared to the Monte Carlo method and ionization chamber measurements. The present findings show that if high-Z material is used in prosthesis, large dose changes can occur due to scattering. The variance in dose observed in the presentmore » study was dependent on material type, density, and atomic number, as well as photon energy; as photon energy increased back scattering decreased. The dose perturbation effect of hip prostheses was significant and could not be predicted accurately by the PBC method for hip prostheses. The findings show that for accurate dose calculation the Monte Carlo-based TPS should be used in patients with hip prostheses.« less
  • Purpose: This study evaluated the performance of the electron Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm in RayStation v4.0 for an Elekta machine with Agility™ treatment head. Methods: The machine has five electron energies (6–8 MeV) and five applicators (6×6 to 25×25 cm {sup 2}). The dose (cGy/MU at d{sub max}), depth dose and profiles were measured in water using an electron diode at 100 cm SSD for nine square fields ≥2×2 cm{sup 2} and four complex fields at normal incidence, and a 14×14 cm{sup 2} field at 15° and 30° incidence. The dose was also measured for three square fields ≥4×4more » cm{sup 2} at 98, 105 and 110 cm SSD. Using selected energies, the EBT3 radiochromic film was used for dose measurements in slab-shaped inhomogeneous phantoms and a breast phantom with surface curvature. The measured and calculated doses were analyzed using a gamma criterion of 3%/3 mm. Results: The calculated and measured doses varied by <3% for 116 of the 120 points, and <5% for the 4×4 cm{sup 2} field at 110 cm SSD at 9–18 MeV. The gamma analysis comparing the 105 pairs of in-water isodoses passed by >98.1%. The planar doses measured from films placed at 0.5 cm below a lung/tissue layer (12 MeV) and 1.0 cm below a bone/air layer (15 MeV) showed excellent agreement with calculations, with gamma passing by 99.9% and 98.5%, respectively. At the breast-tissue interface, the gamma passing rate is >98.8% at 12–18 MeV. The film results directly validated the accuracy of MU calculation and spatial dose distribution in presence of tissue inhomogeneity and surface curvature - situations challenging for simpler pencil-beam algorithms. Conclusion: The electron Monte Carlo algorithm in RayStation v4.0 is fully validated for clinical use for the Elekta Agility™ machine. The comprehensive validation included small fields, complex fields, oblique beams, extended distance, tissue inhomogeneity and surface curvature.« less
  • Purpose: In this report the authors present the validation of a Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (XiO EMC from Elekta Software) for electron beams. Methods: Calculated and measured dose distributions were compared for homogeneous water phantoms and for a 3D heterogeneous phantom meant to approximate the geometry of a trachea and spine. Comparisons of measurements and calculated data were performed using 2D and 3D gamma index dose comparison metrics. Results: Measured outputs agree with calculated values within estimated uncertainties for standard and extended SSDs for open applicators, and for cutouts, with the exception of the 17 MeV electron beam atmore » extended SSD for cutout sizes smaller than 5 × 5 cm{sup 2}. Good agreement was obtained between calculated and experimental depth dose curves and dose profiles (minimum number of measurements that pass a 2%/2 mm agreement 2D gamma index criteria for any applicator or energy was 97%). Dose calculations in a heterogeneous phantom agree with radiochromic film measurements (>98% of pixels pass a 3 dimensional 3%/2 mm γ-criteria) provided that the steep dose gradient in the depth direction is considered. Conclusions: Clinically acceptable agreement (at the 2%/2 mm level) between the measurements and calculated data for measurements in water are obtained for this dose calculation algorithm. Radiochromic film is a useful tool to evaluate the accuracy of electron MC treatment planning systems in heterogeneous media.« less