skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-C-201-04: Noise and Temporal Resolution in a Near Real-Time 3D Dosimeter

Abstract

Purpose: To characterize the performance of a real-time three-dimensional scintillation dosimeter in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and temporal resolution of 3D dose measurements. This study quantifies its efficiency in measuring low dose levels characteristic of EBRT dynamic treatments, and in reproducing field profiles for varying multileaf collimator (MLC) speeds. Methods: The dosimeter prototype uses a plenoptic camera to acquire continuous images of the light field emitted by a 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} plastic scintillator. Using EPID acquisitions, ray tracing-based iterative tomographic algorithms allow millimeter-sized reconstruction of relative 3D dose distributions. Measurements were taken at 6MV, 400 MU/min with the scintillator centered at the isocenter, first receiving doses from 1.4 to 30.6 cGy. Dynamic measurements were then performed by closing half of the MLCs at speeds of 0.67 to 2.5 cm/s, at 0° and 90° collimator angles. A reference static half-field was obtained for measured profile comparison. Results: The SNR steadily increases as a function of dose and reaches a clinically adequate plateau of 80 at 10 cGy. Below this, the decrease in light collected and increase in pixel noise diminishes the SNR; nonetheless, the EPID acquisitions and the voxel correlation employed in the reconstruction algorithms result in suitable SNR valuesmore » (>75) even at low doses. For dynamic measurements at varying MLC speeds, central relative dose profiles are characterized by gradients at %D{sub 50} of 8.48 to 22.7 %/mm. These values converge towards the 32.8 %/mm-gradient measured for the static reference field profile, but are limited by the dosimeter’s current acquisition rate of 1Hz. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the efficiency of the 3D dose distribution reconstructions, while identifying limits of the current prototype’s temporal resolution in terms of dynamic EBRT parameters. This work paves the way for providing an optimized, second-generational real-time 3D scintillation dosimeter capable of highly efficient and precise dose measurements. The presenting author is financially supported by an Alexander-Graham Bell doctoral scholarship from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3]; ;  [1];  [2];  [2];  [4]
  1. Department of physics, engineering physics and optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada)
  2. (Canada)
  3. Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC (Canada)
  4. Center for optics, photonics and lasers, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22624309
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ALGORITHMS; COLLIMATORS; DOSEMETERS; ITERATIVE METHODS; PLASTIC SCINTILLATORS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO; SPATIAL RESOLUTION

Citation Formats

Rilling, M, Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC, Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC, Center for optics, photonics and lasers, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Goulet, M, Beaulieu, L, Archambault, L, Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC, Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC, and Thibault, S. SU-C-201-04: Noise and Temporal Resolution in a Near Real-Time 3D Dosimeter. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4955544.
Rilling, M, Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC, Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC, Center for optics, photonics and lasers, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Goulet, M, Beaulieu, L, Archambault, L, Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC, Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC, & Thibault, S. SU-C-201-04: Noise and Temporal Resolution in a Near Real-Time 3D Dosimeter. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955544.
Rilling, M, Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC, Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC, Center for optics, photonics and lasers, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Goulet, M, Beaulieu, L, Archambault, L, Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC, Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC, and Thibault, S. Wed . "SU-C-201-04: Noise and Temporal Resolution in a Near Real-Time 3D Dosimeter". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4955544.
@article{osti_22624309,
title = {SU-C-201-04: Noise and Temporal Resolution in a Near Real-Time 3D Dosimeter},
author = {Rilling, M and Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC and Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC and Center for optics, photonics and lasers, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec and Goulet, M and Beaulieu, L and Archambault, L and Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC and Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC and Thibault, S},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To characterize the performance of a real-time three-dimensional scintillation dosimeter in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and temporal resolution of 3D dose measurements. This study quantifies its efficiency in measuring low dose levels characteristic of EBRT dynamic treatments, and in reproducing field profiles for varying multileaf collimator (MLC) speeds. Methods: The dosimeter prototype uses a plenoptic camera to acquire continuous images of the light field emitted by a 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} plastic scintillator. Using EPID acquisitions, ray tracing-based iterative tomographic algorithms allow millimeter-sized reconstruction of relative 3D dose distributions. Measurements were taken at 6MV, 400 MU/min with the scintillator centered at the isocenter, first receiving doses from 1.4 to 30.6 cGy. Dynamic measurements were then performed by closing half of the MLCs at speeds of 0.67 to 2.5 cm/s, at 0° and 90° collimator angles. A reference static half-field was obtained for measured profile comparison. Results: The SNR steadily increases as a function of dose and reaches a clinically adequate plateau of 80 at 10 cGy. Below this, the decrease in light collected and increase in pixel noise diminishes the SNR; nonetheless, the EPID acquisitions and the voxel correlation employed in the reconstruction algorithms result in suitable SNR values (>75) even at low doses. For dynamic measurements at varying MLC speeds, central relative dose profiles are characterized by gradients at %D{sub 50} of 8.48 to 22.7 %/mm. These values converge towards the 32.8 %/mm-gradient measured for the static reference field profile, but are limited by the dosimeter’s current acquisition rate of 1Hz. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the efficiency of the 3D dose distribution reconstructions, while identifying limits of the current prototype’s temporal resolution in terms of dynamic EBRT parameters. This work paves the way for providing an optimized, second-generational real-time 3D scintillation dosimeter capable of highly efficient and precise dose measurements. The presenting author is financially supported by an Alexander-Graham Bell doctoral scholarship from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).},
doi = {10.1118/1.4955544},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To assess MR signal contrast for different ferrous ion compounds used in Fricke-type gel dosimeters for real-time dose measurements for MR-guided radiation therapy applications. Methods: Fricke-type gel dosimeters were prepared in 4% w/w gelatin prior to irradiation in an integrated 1.5 T MRI and 7 MV linear accelerator system (MR-Linac). 4 different ferrous ion (Fe2?) compounds (referred to as A, B, C, and D) were investigated for this study. Dosimeter D consisted of ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS), which is conventionally used for Fricke dosimeters. Approximately half of each cylindrical dosimeter (45 mm diameter, 80 mm length) was irradiated tomore » ∼17 Gy. MR imaging during irradiation was performed with the MR-Linac using a balanced-FFE sequence of TR/TE = 5/2.4 ms. An approximate uncertainty of 5% in our dose delivery was anticipated since the MR-Linac had not yet been fully commissioned. Results: The signal intensities (SI) increased between the un-irradiated and irradiated regions by approximately 8.6%, 4.4%, 3.2%, and 4.3% after delivery of ∼2.8 Gy for dosimeters A, B, C, and D, respectively. After delivery of ∼17 Gy, the SI had increased by 24.4%, 21.0%, 3.1%, and 22.2% compared to the un-irradiated regions. The increase in SI with respect to dose was linear for dosimeters A, B, and D with slopes of 0.0164, 0.0251, and 0.0236 Gy{sup −1} (R{sup 2} = 0.92, 0.97, and 0.96), respectively. Visually, dosimeter A had the greatest optical contrast from yellow to purple in the irradiated region. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using Fricke-type dosimeters for real-time dose measurements with the greatest optical and MR contrast for dosimeter A. We also demonstrated the need to investigate Fe{sup 2+} compounds beyond the conventionally utilized FAS compound in order to improve the MR signal contrast in 3D dosimeters used for MR-guided radiation therapy. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. LH- 102SPS.« less
  • Purpose: The feasibility of MRT has recently been demonstrated utilizing a new technology of Carbon-Nano-Tube(CNT) field emission x-ray sources.This approach can deliver very high dose(10's of Gy) in narrow stripes(sub-mm) of radiation which enables the study of novel radiation treatment approaches. Here we investigate the application of highresolution (50um isotropic) PRESAGE/Optical-CT 3D dosimetry techniques to characterize the radiation delivered in this extremely dosimetrically challenging scenario. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source irradiator comprises of a linear cathode array and a novel collimator alignment system. This allows a precise delivery of high-energy small beams up to 160 kVp. A cylindricalmore » dosimeter (∼2.2cm in height ∼2.5cm in diameter) was irradiated by CNT MRT delivering 3 strips of radiation with a nominal entrance dose of 32 Gy.A second dosimeter was irradiated with similar entrance dose, with a regular x-ray irradiator collimated to microscopical strip-beams. 50um (isotropic) 3D dosimetry was performed using an in-house optical-CT system designed and optimized for high resolution imaging (including a stray light deconvolution correction).The percentage depth dose (PDD), peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) and beam width (FWHM) data were obtained and analyzed in both cases. Results: High resolution 3D images were successfully achieved with the prototype system, enabling extraction of PDD and dose profiles. The PDDs for the CNT irradiation showed pronounced attenuation, but less build-up effect than that from the multibeam irradiation. The beam spacing between the three strips has an average value of 0.9mm while that for the 13 strips is 1.5 mm at a depth of 16.5 mm. The stray light corrected image shows line profiles with reduced noise and consistent PVR values. Conclusion: MRT dosimetry is extremely challenging due to the ultra small fields involved.This preliminary application of a novel, ultra-high resolution, optical-CT 3D dosimetry system shows promise, but further work is required to validate and investigate accuracy and artifacts. This work was supported by NIH R01CA100835.« less
  • Purpose: Texture-based quantification of image heterogeneity has been a popular topic for imaging studies in recent years. As previous studies mainly focus on oncological applications, we report our recent efforts of applying such techniques on cardiac perfusion imaging. A fully automated procedure has been developed to perform texture analysis for measuring the image heterogeneity. Clinical data were used to evaluate the preliminary performance of such methods. Methods: Myocardial perfusion images of Thallium-201 scans were collected from 293 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Each subject underwent a Tl-201 scan and a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within three months. The PCImore » Result was used as the gold standard of coronary ischemia of more than 70% stenosis. Each Tl-201 scan was spatially normalized to an image template for fully automatic segmentation of the LV. The segmented voxel intensities were then carried into the texture analysis with our open-source software Chang Gung Image Texture Analysis toolbox (CGITA). To evaluate the clinical performance of the image heterogeneity for detecting the coronary stenosis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compute the overall accuracy, sensitivity and specificity as well as the area under curve (AUC). Those indices were compared to those obtained from the commercially available semi-automatic software QPS. Results: With the fully automatic procedure to quantify heterogeneity from Tl-201 scans, we were able to achieve a good discrimination with good accuracy (74%), sensitivity (73%), specificity (77%) and AUC of 0.82. Such performance is similar to those obtained from the semi-automatic QPS software that gives a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 77%. Conclusion: Based on fully automatic procedures of data processing, our preliminary data indicate that the image heterogeneity of myocardial perfusion imaging can provide useful information for automatic determination of the myocardial ischemia.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) coupled to a 2D array dosimeter to provide simultaneous imaging and dose verification. Methods: The novel dual detector configuration comprised of a 2D diode array dosimeter, referred to as a Magic Plate (MP) placed directly on a standard EPID. Dose response of the MP was evaluated by measuring the detector’s response with respect to off-axis position and field size with 30 cm of solid water (SW) acting as a transit object in the beam. Measurements were performed with 3, 5, 10 and 15 mm SW build-up and compared to 2D ionisationmore » chamber array (ICA) measurements and the PinnacleTM treatment planning system (TPS) at a source to detector distance of 150 cm with a 6 MV beam. Clinical dosimetric performance was evaluated by measuring a number of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams in transit geometry. Imaging performance of the EPID was quantified by measuring the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. Images of a Rando phantom were used for qualitative assessment. Results: Measured MP off-axis and field size response agreed within 2% of TPS and ICA responses when measured using 15 mm SW build-up. Clinical IMRT beams had gamma pass rates of ≥95% at 3%/3mm criteria. Measured CNR and spatial resolution (f50) were 264.96, 210.6, and 0.41, 0.40 with build-up of 5 and 15 mm respectively for the dual detector configuration. CNR and spatial resolution of 643.9 and 0.41 were measured for standard EPID. CNR was quantitatively worse in the dual detector configuration. Differences in imaging performance were not visible in a qualitative assessment using a Rando phantom. Conclusion: Combining a prototype MP 2D dosimeter with a conventional EPID did not significantly detract from the performance of either device and has the potential for simultaneous on-line patient transit dosimetry and image assessment in radiation therapy. Cancer Institute NSW Australia(Research Equipment Grant 10/REG/1-20) and Cancer Council NSW (Grant ID RG 1-06)« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion on the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)–based lung tumor internal target volumes (ITV), using deformable image registration of real-time 2D-sagital cine-mode MRI acquired during lung SBRT treatments. Methods: Five lung tumor patients underwent free breathing SBRT treatment on the ViewRay, with dose prescribed to PTV (4DCT MIP-based ITV+3–6mm margin). Sagittal slice cine-MR images (3.5×3.5mm pixels) were acquired through the center of the tumor at 4 frames per second throughout the treatments (3–4 fractions of 21–32 minutes duration). Tumor GTVs were contoured on the firstmore » frame of the cine and tracked throughout the treatment using off-line optical-flow based deformable registration implemented on a GPU cluster. Pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITVs were generated from MIPs of the deformed GTV contours limited to short segments of image data. All possible pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITV volumes were generated with 1s resolution and compared to the ITV volume of the entire treatment course. Varying pseudo-4DCT durations from 10-50s were analyzed. Results: Tumors were covered in their entirety by PTV in the patients analysed here. However, pseudo-4DCT based ITV volumes were observed that were as small as 29% of the entire treatment-ITV, depending on breathing irregularity and the duration of pseudo-4DCT. With an increase in duration of pseudo-4DCT from 10–50s the minimum volume acquired from 95% of all pseudo-4DCTs increased from 62%–81% of the treatment ITV. Conclusion: A 4DCT MIP-based ITV offers a ‘snap-shot’ of breathing motion for the brief period of time the tumor is imaged on a specific day. Real time MRI over prolonged periods of time and over multiple treatment fractions shows that the accuracy of this snap-shot varies according to inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion. Further work is required to investigate the dosimetric effect of these results.« less