# Low- and high-order accurate boundary conditions: From Stokes to Darcy porous flow modeled with standard and improved Brinkman lattice Boltzmann schemes

## Abstract

The present contribution focuses on the accuracy of reflection-type boundary conditions in the Stokes–Brinkman–Darcy modeling of porous flows solved with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which we operate with the two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision and the Brinkman-force based scheme (BF), called BF-TRT scheme. In parallel, we compare it with the Stokes–Brinkman–Darcy linear finite element method (FEM) where the Dirichlet boundary conditions are enforced on grid vertices. In bulk, both BF-TRT and FEM share the same defect: in their discretization a correction to the modeled Brinkman equation appears, given by the discrete Laplacian of the velocity-proportional resistance force. This correction modifies the effective Brinkman viscosity, playing a crucial role in the triggering of spurious oscillations in the bulk solution. While the exact form of this defect is available in lattice-aligned, straight or diagonal, flows; in arbitrary flow/lattice orientations its approximation is constructed. At boundaries, we verify that such a Brinkman viscosity correction has an even more harmful impact. Already at the first order, it shifts the location of the no-slip wall condition supported by traditional LBM boundary schemes, such as the bounce-back rule. For that reason, this work develops a new class of boundary schemes to prescribe the Dirichlet velocity condition atmore »

- Authors:

- Irstea, Antony Regional Centre, HBAN, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes CS 10030, 92761 Antony cedex (France)
- CNRS (UMR 7608), Laboratoire FAST, Batiment 502, Campus University, 91405 Orsay (France)

- Publication Date:

- OSTI Identifier:
- 22622277

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Resource Relation:
- Journal Name: Journal of Computational Physics; Journal Volume: 335; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; APPROXIMATIONS; BOLTZMANN EQUATION; BOUNDARY CONDITIONS; BOUNDARY LAYERS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; CORRECTIONS; DEFECTS; DIRICHLET PROBLEM; EXACT SOLUTIONS; FINITE ELEMENT METHOD; FLOW MODELS; INTERFERENCE; LAPLACIAN; OSCILLATIONS; PERIODICITY; PERMEABILITY; POROUS MATERIALS; RELAXATION TIME; RESOLUTION; VISCOSITY

### Citation Formats

```
Silva, Goncalo, E-mail: goncalo.nuno.silva@gmail.com, Talon, Laurent, E-mail: talon@fast.u-psud.fr, and Ginzburg, Irina, E-mail: irina.ginzburg@irstea.fr.
```*Low- and high-order accurate boundary conditions: From Stokes to Darcy porous flow modeled with standard and improved Brinkman lattice Boltzmann schemes*. United States: N. p., 2017.
Web. doi:10.1016/J.JCP.2017.01.023.

```
Silva, Goncalo, E-mail: goncalo.nuno.silva@gmail.com, Talon, Laurent, E-mail: talon@fast.u-psud.fr, & Ginzburg, Irina, E-mail: irina.ginzburg@irstea.fr.
```*Low- and high-order accurate boundary conditions: From Stokes to Darcy porous flow modeled with standard and improved Brinkman lattice Boltzmann schemes*. United States. doi:10.1016/J.JCP.2017.01.023.

```
Silva, Goncalo, E-mail: goncalo.nuno.silva@gmail.com, Talon, Laurent, E-mail: talon@fast.u-psud.fr, and Ginzburg, Irina, E-mail: irina.ginzburg@irstea.fr. Sat .
"Low- and high-order accurate boundary conditions: From Stokes to Darcy porous flow modeled with standard and improved Brinkman lattice Boltzmann schemes". United States.
doi:10.1016/J.JCP.2017.01.023.
```

```
@article{osti_22622277,
```

title = {Low- and high-order accurate boundary conditions: From Stokes to Darcy porous flow modeled with standard and improved Brinkman lattice Boltzmann schemes},

author = {Silva, Goncalo, E-mail: goncalo.nuno.silva@gmail.com and Talon, Laurent, E-mail: talon@fast.u-psud.fr and Ginzburg, Irina, E-mail: irina.ginzburg@irstea.fr},

abstractNote = {The present contribution focuses on the accuracy of reflection-type boundary conditions in the Stokes–Brinkman–Darcy modeling of porous flows solved with the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which we operate with the two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision and the Brinkman-force based scheme (BF), called BF-TRT scheme. In parallel, we compare it with the Stokes–Brinkman–Darcy linear finite element method (FEM) where the Dirichlet boundary conditions are enforced on grid vertices. In bulk, both BF-TRT and FEM share the same defect: in their discretization a correction to the modeled Brinkman equation appears, given by the discrete Laplacian of the velocity-proportional resistance force. This correction modifies the effective Brinkman viscosity, playing a crucial role in the triggering of spurious oscillations in the bulk solution. While the exact form of this defect is available in lattice-aligned, straight or diagonal, flows; in arbitrary flow/lattice orientations its approximation is constructed. At boundaries, we verify that such a Brinkman viscosity correction has an even more harmful impact. Already at the first order, it shifts the location of the no-slip wall condition supported by traditional LBM boundary schemes, such as the bounce-back rule. For that reason, this work develops a new class of boundary schemes to prescribe the Dirichlet velocity condition at an arbitrary wall/boundary-node distance and that supports a higher order accuracy in the accommodation of the TRT-Brinkman solutions. For their modeling, we consider the standard BF scheme and its improved version, called IBF; this latter is generalized in this work to suppress or to reduce the viscosity correction in arbitrarily oriented flows. Our framework extends the one- and two-point families of linear and parabolic link-wise boundary schemes, respectively called B-LI and B-MLI, which avoid the interference of the Brinkman viscosity correction in their closure relations. The performance of LBM and FEM is thoroughly evaluated in three benchmark tests, which are run throughout three distinctive permeability regimes. The first configuration is a horizontal porous channel, studied with a symbolic approach, where we construct the exact solutions of FEM and BF/IBF with different boundary schemes. The second problem refers to an inclined porous channel flow, which brings in as new challenge the formation of spurious boundary layers in LBM; that is, numerical artefacts that arise due to a deficient accommodation of the bulk solution by the low-accurate boundary scheme. The third problem considers a porous flow past a periodic square array of solid cylinders, which intensifies the previous two tests with the simulation of a more complex flow pattern. The ensemble of numerical tests provides guidelines on the effect of grid resolution and the TRT free collision parameter over the accuracy and the quality of the velocity field, spanning from Stokes to Darcy permeability regimes. It is shown that, with the use of the high-order accurate boundary schemes, the simple, uniform-mesh-based TRT-LBM formulation can even surpass the accuracy of FEM employing hardworking body-fitted meshes.},

doi = {10.1016/J.JCP.2017.01.023},

journal = {Journal of Computational Physics},

number = ,

volume = 335,

place = {United States},

year = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017},

month = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017}

}