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Title: Radiation dose and cancer risk to out-of-field and partially in-field organs from radiotherapy for symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas

Abstract

Purpose: Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are the most common benign tumors of the spine that may cause bone resorption. Megavoltage irradiation is usually the treatment of choice for the management of symptomatic VHs. The current study was conducted to estimate the risk for carcinogenesis from radiotherapy of this benign disease on the basis of the calculated radiation doses to healthy organs. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-particle transport code was employed to simulate the irradiation with 6 MV x-rays of a VH presented in the cervical, upper thoracic, lower thoracic, and lumbar spine. The average radiation dose (D{sub av}) received by each critical organ located outside the primarily irradiated area was calculated. Three-dimensional treatment plans were also generated for the VHs occurring at the four different sites of the spinal cord based on patients’ computed tomography data. The organ equivalent dose (OED) to each radiosensitive structure, which was partly encompassed by the applied treatment fields, was calculated with the aid of differential dose–volume histograms. The D{sub av} and the OED values were combined with a linear-no-threshold model and a nonlinear mechanistic model, respectively, to estimate the organ-, age-, and gender-specific lifetime attributable risks (LARs) for cancer development. The estimated risks were comparedmore » with the respective nominal lifetime intrinsic risks (LIRs) for the unexposed population. Results: For a standard target dose of 34 Gy, the OED varied from 0.39–5.15 Gy by the organ of interest and the irradiation site. The D{sub av} range for the out-of-field organs was 4.9 × 10{sup −4} to 0.56 Gy. The LAR for the appearance of malignancies in the partially in-field organs after radiotherapy of male and female patients was (0.08%–1.8%) and (0.09%–1.9%), respectively. These risk values were 1.5–15.5 times lower when compared to the respective LIRs. The lifetime probability for out-of-field cancer induction in irradiated males and females was (2.5 × 10{sup −4} to 7.7 × 10{sup −2})% and (1.4 × 10{sup −4} to 2.6 × 10{sup −1})%, respectively. The above risks were one to four orders of magnitude lower than the LIRs. Conclusions: The probability for the development of out-of-field malignancies due to radiotherapy for VHs is trivial with respect to the nominal risk for unexposed population. The respective cancer risks to partially in-field organs are smaller than the nominal probabilities but they should not be considered as inconsiderable. These risks may be taken into account during the follow-up of patients treated for a symptomatic VH.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, Crete 71003 (Greece)
  2. Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital of Iraklion, Iraklion, Crete 71110 (Greece)
  3. Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, Iraklion, Crete 71110 (Greece)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22620849
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANGIOMAS; CARCINOGENESIS; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; CRITICAL ORGANS; DOSE EQUIVALENTS; HEALTH HAZARDS; IRRADIATION; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SPINAL CORD; VERTEBRAE

Citation Formats

Mazonakis, Michalis, E-mail: mazonak@med.uoc.gr, Damilakis, John, Tzedakis, Antonis, and Lyraraki, Efrossyni. Radiation dose and cancer risk to out-of-field and partially in-field organs from radiotherapy for symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4944422.
Mazonakis, Michalis, E-mail: mazonak@med.uoc.gr, Damilakis, John, Tzedakis, Antonis, & Lyraraki, Efrossyni. Radiation dose and cancer risk to out-of-field and partially in-field organs from radiotherapy for symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4944422.
Mazonakis, Michalis, E-mail: mazonak@med.uoc.gr, Damilakis, John, Tzedakis, Antonis, and Lyraraki, Efrossyni. 2016. "Radiation dose and cancer risk to out-of-field and partially in-field organs from radiotherapy for symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4944422.
@article{osti_22620849,
title = {Radiation dose and cancer risk to out-of-field and partially in-field organs from radiotherapy for symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas},
author = {Mazonakis, Michalis, E-mail: mazonak@med.uoc.gr and Damilakis, John and Tzedakis, Antonis and Lyraraki, Efrossyni},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are the most common benign tumors of the spine that may cause bone resorption. Megavoltage irradiation is usually the treatment of choice for the management of symptomatic VHs. The current study was conducted to estimate the risk for carcinogenesis from radiotherapy of this benign disease on the basis of the calculated radiation doses to healthy organs. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-particle transport code was employed to simulate the irradiation with 6 MV x-rays of a VH presented in the cervical, upper thoracic, lower thoracic, and lumbar spine. The average radiation dose (D{sub av}) received by each critical organ located outside the primarily irradiated area was calculated. Three-dimensional treatment plans were also generated for the VHs occurring at the four different sites of the spinal cord based on patients’ computed tomography data. The organ equivalent dose (OED) to each radiosensitive structure, which was partly encompassed by the applied treatment fields, was calculated with the aid of differential dose–volume histograms. The D{sub av} and the OED values were combined with a linear-no-threshold model and a nonlinear mechanistic model, respectively, to estimate the organ-, age-, and gender-specific lifetime attributable risks (LARs) for cancer development. The estimated risks were compared with the respective nominal lifetime intrinsic risks (LIRs) for the unexposed population. Results: For a standard target dose of 34 Gy, the OED varied from 0.39–5.15 Gy by the organ of interest and the irradiation site. The D{sub av} range for the out-of-field organs was 4.9 × 10{sup −4} to 0.56 Gy. The LAR for the appearance of malignancies in the partially in-field organs after radiotherapy of male and female patients was (0.08%–1.8%) and (0.09%–1.9%), respectively. These risk values were 1.5–15.5 times lower when compared to the respective LIRs. The lifetime probability for out-of-field cancer induction in irradiated males and females was (2.5 × 10{sup −4} to 7.7 × 10{sup −2})% and (1.4 × 10{sup −4} to 2.6 × 10{sup −1})%, respectively. The above risks were one to four orders of magnitude lower than the LIRs. Conclusions: The probability for the development of out-of-field malignancies due to radiotherapy for VHs is trivial with respect to the nominal risk for unexposed population. The respective cancer risks to partially in-field organs are smaller than the nominal probabilities but they should not be considered as inconsiderable. These risks may be taken into account during the follow-up of patients treated for a symptomatic VH.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4944422},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 4
}
  • Purpose: The current study analyzes the potential role of radiotherapy (RT) in symptomatic vertebral hemangioma (SVH). Methods and Materials: Seven cooperating German institutions collected clinical information, treatment plans, and outcome data for all patients with SVH referred for local RT. Results: From 1969 to 2008, a total of 84 patients with 96 symptomatic lesions were irradiated for SVH. The primary indication for radiotherapy was pain (97.6%), and 28.6% of patients had additional neurological symptoms. RT was performed at a median total dose of 34 Gy, with a median single dose of 2.0 Gy. After receiving a median follow-up of 68more » months, the overall patient response rate was 90.5%. Complete symptom remission occurred in 61.9% of patients, 28.6% of patients had partial pain relief, and 9.5% of patients had no pain relief. In 26.2% of patients, radiological signs of reossification were observed in long-term follow-up but not significantly correlated with pain relief. Most importantly, total doses of >=34 Gy resulted in significantly greater symptomatic relief and control rate than total doses of <34 Gy. Conclusions: This study consists of the largest database of cases reported so far using RT for SVH. RT is easy, safe, and effective for pain relief treatment for SVH. Total doses of at least 34 Gy give the best symptomatic response.« less
  • Purpose: The aim of the current study was to (a) calculate the organ equivalent dose (OED) and (b) estimate the associated second cancer risk to partially in-field critical structures from adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I seminoma of the testis on the basis of three different nonlinear risk models. Methods: Three-dimensional plans were created for twelve patients who underwent a treatment planning computed tomography of the abdomen. The plans for irradiation of seminoma consisted of para-aortic anteroposterior and posteroanterior fields giving 20 Gy to the target site with 6 MV photons. The OED of stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, and kidneys, thatmore » were partially included in the treatment volume, was calculated using differential dose–volume histograms. The mechanistic, bell-shaped, and plateau models were employed for these calculations provided that organ-specific parameters were available for the subsequent assessment of the excess absolute risk (EAR) for second cancer development. The estimated organ-specific lifetime risks were compared with the respective nominal intrinsic probabilities for cancer induction. Results: The mean OED, which was calculated from the patients’ treatment plans, varied from 0.54 to 6.61 Gy by the partially in-field organ of interest and the model used for dosimetric calculations. The difference between the OED of liver derived from the mechanistic model with those from the bell-shaped and plateau models was less than 1.8%. An even smaller deviation of 1.0% was observed for colon. For the rest organs of interest, the differences between the OED values obtained by the examined models varied from 8.6% to 50.0%. The EAR for stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, and kidney cancer induction at an age of 70 yr because of treatment of a typical 39-yr-old individual was up to 4.24, 11.39, 0.91, 3.04, and 0.14 per 10 000 persons-yr, respectively. Patient’s irradiation was found to elevate the lifetime intrinsic risks by 8.3%–63.0% depending upon the organ of interest and the model employed for risk analysis. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for stage I seminoma of the testis may result in an excess risk for the appearance of secondary malignancies in partially in-field organs. The organ- and model-dependent second cancer risk assessments of this study may be of value for patient counseling and follow-up.« less
  • Correct target positioning is crucial for accurate dose delivery in breast radiotherapy resulting in utilisation of daily imaging. However, the radiation dose from daily imaging is associated with increased probability of secondary induced cancer. The aim of this study was to quantify doses associated with three imaging modalities and investigate the correlation of dose and varying breast size in breast radiotherapy. Planning computed tomography (CT) data sets of 30 breast cancer patients were utilised to simulate the dose received by various organs from a megavoltage computed tomography (MV-CT), megavoltage electronic portal image (MV-EPI) and megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT). Themore » mean dose to organs adjacent to the target volume (contralateral breast, lungs, spinal cord and heart) were analysed. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between imaging dose and primary breast volume and the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of induced secondary cancer was calculated for the contralateral breast. The highest contralateral breast mean dose was from the MV-CBCT (1.79 Gy), followed by MV-EPI (0.22 Gy) and MV-CT (0.11 Gy). A similar trend was found for all organs at risk (OAR) analysed. The primary breast volume inversely correlated with the contralateral breast dose for all three imaging modalities. As the primary breast volume increases, the likelihood of a patient developing a radiation-induced secondary cancer to the contralateral breast decreases. MV-CBCT showed a stronger relationship between breast size and LAR of developing a radiation-induced contralateral breast cancer in comparison with the MV-CT and MV-EPI. For breast patients, imaging dose to OAR depends on imaging modality and treated breast size. When considering the use of imaging during breast radiotherapy, the patient's breast size and contralateral breast dose should be taken into account.« less
  • To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new “toxicity index” (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volumemore » histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V{sub 20} in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC.« less
  • Purpose: Midline-blocked boost (MBB) fields are frequently used in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose contribution from MBBs to tumor and organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Six patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (IIB-IIIB) treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy were analyzed. A three-phase plan was modeled: 45 Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction) four-field box, 9 Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction) MBB (midline-shielded anteroposterior/posteroanterior fields), and intracavitary MRI-guided brachytherapy boost of 28 Gy (7 Gy per fraction). Midline shields 3, 4, and 5 cmmore » wide were simulated for each patient. Brachytherapy and MBB plans were volumetrically summed. The rectum, sigmoid, and bladder minimum dose in the most exposed 2 cm{sup 3} of an organ at risk (D{sub 2cc}) and high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and intermediate-risk clinical target volume (IR-CTV) D90 and D100 were evaluated. The intended HR-CTV D90 was 85 Gy or greater, and the intended IR-CTV D90 was greater than 60 Gy. Results: After a 4-cm MBB, HR-CTV D90 remained lower than 85 Gy in all cases (mean, 74 Gy; range, 64-82 Gy). High-risk clinical target volume (85 Gy) coverage increased slightly from 73% (range, 64-82%) to 78% (range, 69-88%). Mean IR-CTV D90 increased from 56 Gy (range, 53-64 Gy) to 62 Gy (range, 59-67 Gy). Intermediate-risk clinical target volume 60-Gy dose coverage increased from 81% (range, 72-96%) to 96% (range, 90-100%). The mean volume irradiated to 85 Gy increased by 14 cm{sup 3} (range, 10-22 cm{sup 3}), whereas the volume irradiated to 60 Gy increased from 276 cm{sup 3} (range, 185-417 cm{sup 3}) to 592 cm{sup 3} (range, 385-807 cm{sup 3}). Bladder, rectum, or sigmoid D{sub 2cc} increased by more than 50% of the boost dose in 4 of 6 patients. Conclusions: Midline-blocked boosts contribute substantial dose to rectum, sigmoid, and bladder D{sub 2cc}. HR-CTV dose and 85-Gy coverage remain compromised in large tumors despite MBB. IR-CTV 60-Gy coverage improved at the expense of a considerable increase in volume of normal tissue irradiated to 60 Gy.« less