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Title: Effect of mild temperature shift on poly(ADP-ribose) and γH2AX levels in cultured cells

Abstract

Poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) is rapidly synthesized by PAR polymerases (PARPs) upon activation by DNA single- and double-strand breaks. In this study, we examined the quantitative amount of PAR in HeLa cells cultured within the physiological temperatures below 41 °C for verification of the effect of shifting-up or -down the temperature from 37.0 °C on the DNA breaks, whether the temperature-shift caused breaks that could be monitored by the level of PAR. While PAR level did not change significantly when HeLa cells were cultured at 33.5 °C or 37.0 °C, it was significantly increased 2- and 3-fold when cells were cultured for 12 h and 24 h, respectively, at 40.5 °C as compared to 37.0 °C. Similar to the results with HeLa cells, PAR level was increased 2-fold in CHO-K1 cells cultured at 40.5 °C for 24 h as compared to 37.0 °C. As the cellular levels of PAR polymerase1 (PARP1) and PAR glycohydrolase (PARG), a major degradation enzyme for PAR, did not seem to change significantly, this increase could be caused by activation of PARP1 by DNA strand breaks. In fact, γH2AX, claimed to be a marker of DNA double-strand breaks, was found in cell extracts of HeLa cells and CHO-K1 cells at elevated temperature vs. 37.0 °C, and these γH2AX signalsmore » were intensified in the presence of 3-aminobenzamide, a PARP inhibitor. The γH2AX immunohistochemistry results in HeLa cells were consistent with Western blot analyses. In HeLa cells, proliferation was significantly suppressed at 40.5 °C in 72 h-continuous cultures and decreased viabilities were also observed after 24–72 h at 40.5 °C. Flow cytometric analyses showed that the HeLa cells were arrested at G2/M after temperature shift-up to 40.5 °C. These physiological changes were potentiated in the presence of 3-aminobenzamide. Decrease in growth rates, increased cytotoxicity and G2/M arrest, were associated with the temperature-shift to 40.5 °C and are indirect evidence of DNA breaks. In addition to γH2AX, PAR could be a sensitive marker for DNA single- and double-strand breaks. These two molecular markers provide evidence of physiological changes occurring within cells. - Highlights: • Physiological level of poly(ADP-ribose) was determined during mild temperature shift. • Poly(ADP-ribose) level in HeLa and CHO-K1 cells significantly increased. • γH2AX signals increased during culture at 40.5 °C as compared to 37.0 °C. • Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor potentiated γH2AX signals at 40.5 °C. • γH2AX and poly(ADP-ribose) level provide evidence of physiological changes in cells.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]; ; ; ;  [1];  [4];  [1]
  1. Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 1266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga 526-0829 (Japan)
  2. Department of Microbiology, Kansai Medical University, 2-5-1 Shin-machi, Hirakata City, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan)
  3. Department of Applied Life Studies, College of Nagoya Women’s University, 3-40 Shioji-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi 467-8610 (Japan)
  4. Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1590 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22606140
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 476; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ADP; CELL CULTURES; CELL PROLIFERATION; CONTINUOUS CULTURE; DNA REPAIR; HELA CELLS; POLYMERASES; RIBOSE; STRAND BREAKS; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Yamashita, Sachiko, Tanaka, Masakazu, Sato, Teruaki, Ida, Chieri, Ohta, Narumi, Hamada, Takashi, Uetsuki, Taichi, Nishi, Yoshisuke, Moss, Joel, and Miwa, Masanao, E-mail: m_miwa@nagahama-i-bio.ac.jp. Effect of mild temperature shift on poly(ADP-ribose) and γH2AX levels in cultured cells. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2016.06.001.
Yamashita, Sachiko, Tanaka, Masakazu, Sato, Teruaki, Ida, Chieri, Ohta, Narumi, Hamada, Takashi, Uetsuki, Taichi, Nishi, Yoshisuke, Moss, Joel, & Miwa, Masanao, E-mail: m_miwa@nagahama-i-bio.ac.jp. Effect of mild temperature shift on poly(ADP-ribose) and γH2AX levels in cultured cells. United States. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2016.06.001.
Yamashita, Sachiko, Tanaka, Masakazu, Sato, Teruaki, Ida, Chieri, Ohta, Narumi, Hamada, Takashi, Uetsuki, Taichi, Nishi, Yoshisuke, Moss, Joel, and Miwa, Masanao, E-mail: m_miwa@nagahama-i-bio.ac.jp. Fri . "Effect of mild temperature shift on poly(ADP-ribose) and γH2AX levels in cultured cells". United States. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2016.06.001.
@article{osti_22606140,
title = {Effect of mild temperature shift on poly(ADP-ribose) and γH2AX levels in cultured cells},
author = {Yamashita, Sachiko and Tanaka, Masakazu and Sato, Teruaki and Ida, Chieri and Ohta, Narumi and Hamada, Takashi and Uetsuki, Taichi and Nishi, Yoshisuke and Moss, Joel and Miwa, Masanao, E-mail: m_miwa@nagahama-i-bio.ac.jp},
abstractNote = {Poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) is rapidly synthesized by PAR polymerases (PARPs) upon activation by DNA single- and double-strand breaks. In this study, we examined the quantitative amount of PAR in HeLa cells cultured within the physiological temperatures below 41 °C for verification of the effect of shifting-up or -down the temperature from 37.0 °C on the DNA breaks, whether the temperature-shift caused breaks that could be monitored by the level of PAR. While PAR level did not change significantly when HeLa cells were cultured at 33.5 °C or 37.0 °C, it was significantly increased 2- and 3-fold when cells were cultured for 12 h and 24 h, respectively, at 40.5 °C as compared to 37.0 °C. Similar to the results with HeLa cells, PAR level was increased 2-fold in CHO-K1 cells cultured at 40.5 °C for 24 h as compared to 37.0 °C. As the cellular levels of PAR polymerase1 (PARP1) and PAR glycohydrolase (PARG), a major degradation enzyme for PAR, did not seem to change significantly, this increase could be caused by activation of PARP1 by DNA strand breaks. In fact, γH2AX, claimed to be a marker of DNA double-strand breaks, was found in cell extracts of HeLa cells and CHO-K1 cells at elevated temperature vs. 37.0 °C, and these γH2AX signals were intensified in the presence of 3-aminobenzamide, a PARP inhibitor. The γH2AX immunohistochemistry results in HeLa cells were consistent with Western blot analyses. In HeLa cells, proliferation was significantly suppressed at 40.5 °C in 72 h-continuous cultures and decreased viabilities were also observed after 24–72 h at 40.5 °C. Flow cytometric analyses showed that the HeLa cells were arrested at G2/M after temperature shift-up to 40.5 °C. These physiological changes were potentiated in the presence of 3-aminobenzamide. Decrease in growth rates, increased cytotoxicity and G2/M arrest, were associated with the temperature-shift to 40.5 °C and are indirect evidence of DNA breaks. In addition to γH2AX, PAR could be a sensitive marker for DNA single- and double-strand breaks. These two molecular markers provide evidence of physiological changes occurring within cells. - Highlights: • Physiological level of poly(ADP-ribose) was determined during mild temperature shift. • Poly(ADP-ribose) level in HeLa and CHO-K1 cells significantly increased. • γH2AX signals increased during culture at 40.5 °C as compared to 37.0 °C. • Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor potentiated γH2AX signals at 40.5 °C. • γH2AX and poly(ADP-ribose) level provide evidence of physiological changes in cells.},
doi = {10.1016/J.BBRC.2016.06.001},
journal = {Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications},
number = 4,
volume = 476,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 05 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Aug 05 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Effects of deuterium oxide (D/sub 2/O) and 3-aminobenzamide, an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, on cell proliferation and survival were studied in cultured mammalian L5178Y cells under growing conditions and after acute and low-dose-rate irradiation at about 0.1 to 0.4 Gy/hr of ..gamma.. rays. Growth of irradiated and unirradiated cells was inhibited by 45% D/sub 2/O but not by 3-aminobenzamide at 10mM, except for treatments longer than 30 hr. The presence of these agents either alone or in combination during irradiation at low dose rates suppressed almost totally the decrease in cell killing due to the decrease in dose rate. Amongmore » other inhibitors tested, theobromine and theophylline were found to be effective in eliminating the dose-rate effects of ..gamma.. rays. Possible mechanisms underlying the inhibition are discussed.« less
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase, a chromatin-bound enzyme which attaches polyanionic chains of ADP-ribose to nuclear proteins, was found to be temperature sensitive in intact Drosophila melanogaster cells. The synthetase was completely inactivated by heat-shocking the cells at 37/sup 0/C for 5 min, a condition which had no appreciable effect on the subsequent growth of Drosophila cells at their physiological temperature. The heat-shock effect on synthetase was reversible; enzyme activity began to reappear about 2 hr post heat shock. During the 2-hr interval when poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase was absent, the cells were competent in repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA strand breaks as shown by DNAmore » sedimentation studies on alkaline sucrose gradients. It is thus concluded that poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis is unnecessary for repair of DNA strand breaks introduced by irradiation. The same conclusion was reached from the fact that two inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase 3-aminobenzamide and 5-methylnicotinamide, failed to block repair of ..gamma..-ray-induced DNA chain breaks even though both inhibitors reduced the amount of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized in cells by 50-75%. Although it was found that the repair of DNA strand breaks is independent of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis, irradiation does activate the synthetase in control cells, as shown by radioimmunoassay of poly(ADP-ribose) levels.« less
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate possible involvement of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in X-ray-induced cell killing, repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD), and formation and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage. As tools we used the inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, 3-aminobenzamide (3AB), and 4-aminobenzamide (4AB). Both drugs inhibited PLD repair equally well but did not increase radiation-induced cell killing when cells were plated immediately after irradiation. 3AB affected repair of radiation-induced DNA damage, while 4AB had no effect. When 3AB was combined with aphidicolin (APC), it was found that the amount of DNA damage increased during the postirradiation incubation period. Thismore » means that the presence of 3AB stimulates the formation of DNA damage after X-irradiation. It is concluded that 3AB and 4AB sensitize HeLaS3 cells for radiation-induced cell killing by inhibiting repair of PLD. Because of the different effects of both inhibitors on repair of PLD and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage (a process known to be affected by inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation), it is concluded that the observed inhibition of PLD repair is not caused by inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, and that the inhibitors affect repair of PLD and repair of DNA damage through independent mechanisms.« less
  • The modifying effects of PD 128763 (3,4-dihydro-5-methyl-1(2H)-isoquinolinone), a potent inhibitor of poly(adenosine-diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase, on radiation-induced cell killing were examined in Chinese hamster V79 cells. This compound has an IC50 value against the purified enzyme approximately 50X lower than 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a widely used specific inhibitor of the enzyme. Exposure of exponentially growing cells to a noncytotoxic concentration (0.5 mM) of PD 128763 for 2 h immediately following X irradiation increased their radiation sensitivity, modifying both the shoulder and the slope of the survival curve. When recovery from sublethal damage and potentially lethal damage was examined in exponential and plateau-phasemore » cells, respectively, postirradiation incubation with 0.5 mM PD 128763 was found not only to inhibit both these processes fully, but also to enhance further the level of radiation-induced cell killing. This is in contrast to the slight effect seen with the less potent inhibitor, 3-AB. The results presented suggest that the mechanism of radiosensitization by PD 128763 is related to the potent inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by this compound.« less
  • SV40-3T3 cells were exposed in monolayer cultures to 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} M methotrexate (MTX), that inhibited thymidylate synthetase, arrested cell growth without cell killing in 24 h and did not induce single- (ss) or double-strand (ds) breaks in DNA. Following 24, up to 72 h, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase content of attached cells was induced by 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} MTX and the augmentation of the enzyme increased with the time of exposure to the drug. Inhibition of protein or RNA synthesis abolished augmentation of enzymatic activity; so too did the initiation of maximal cell growth by thymidine + hypoxanthine, by-passing the inhibitory sitemore » of MTX. Isolation of the ADP-ribosylated enzyme protein by gel electrophoresis identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein as the molecule that was induced by 5{times}10{sup {minus}7} M MTX. Under identical conditions, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase induction in 3T3 cells could not be demonstrated. A possible cell-cycle dependent biosynthesis of the enzyme protein is proposed in SV40 3T3 cells.« less