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Title: A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity

Abstract

3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals, in particular, has found a number of applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Although many techniques are used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a microwave cavity (resonant frequencies 9.9 and 11.2 GHz) 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable with the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The result is achieved even with a very large concentration of non-superconducting silicon in the alloy of 12.18%, compared with Al-6061, which has between 0.4% and 0.8%. Our results may pave the way for the possibility of 3D printing superconductingmore » cavity configurations that are otherwise impossible to machine.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ; ;  [2];  [3]
  1. School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
  2. ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)
  3. School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009 (Australia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22594471
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ALUMINIUM; ALUMINIUM ALLOYS; AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY; CERAMICS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CONCENTRATION RATIO; CRITICAL TEMPERATURE; ELECTRON BEAMS; ELECTRONS; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; MELTING; MICROWAVE RADIATION; PLASTICS; POWDERS; QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS; SILICON; SINTERING; SUPERCONDUCTING CAVITY RESONATORS; SUPERCONDUCTIVITY; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

Citation Formats

Creedon, Daniel L., Goryachev, Maxim, Kostylev, Nikita, Tobar, Michael E., E-mail: michael.tobar@uwa.edu.au, and Sercombe, Timothy B.. A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4958684.
Creedon, Daniel L., Goryachev, Maxim, Kostylev, Nikita, Tobar, Michael E., E-mail: michael.tobar@uwa.edu.au, & Sercombe, Timothy B.. A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4958684.
Creedon, Daniel L., Goryachev, Maxim, Kostylev, Nikita, Tobar, Michael E., E-mail: michael.tobar@uwa.edu.au, and Sercombe, Timothy B.. 2016. "A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4958684.
@article{osti_22594471,
title = {A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity},
author = {Creedon, Daniel L. and Goryachev, Maxim and Kostylev, Nikita and Tobar, Michael E., E-mail: michael.tobar@uwa.edu.au and Sercombe, Timothy B.},
abstractNote = {3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals, in particular, has found a number of applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Although many techniques are used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a microwave cavity (resonant frequencies 9.9 and 11.2 GHz) 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable with the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The result is achieved even with a very large concentration of non-superconducting silicon in the alloy of 12.18%, compared with Al-6061, which has between 0.4% and 0.8%. Our results may pave the way for the possibility of 3D printing superconducting cavity configurations that are otherwise impossible to machine.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4958684},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 3,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}
  • We report the successful fabrication and characterization of a high T/sub c/ superconducting microwave cavity. The cavity made of bulk Y/sub 1/Ba/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub y/ (T/sub c/ = 93 K) and dielectrically loaded with sapphire was resonant at 8.00 GHz in the TE/sub 011/ mode. At 77 K the Q was 10/sup 4/, which represents an improvement of a factor of 11 from the normal state. At 4.2 K the Q was nearly 10/sup 5/. The temperature dependence of the Q correlates extremely well with the microwave surface resistance of a test sample measured independently, clearly showing that the Qmore » was limited by the intrinsic materials preparation and not by extraneous factors.« less
  • The cavity, constructed of Cu with a surface deposit of the superconductor being tested, was fastened directly to the bottom of a liquid He reservoir. It was about 14 cm in diameter, 14 cm in length, and was resonant at 2856 Mc in the TE/sub 011/ mode. An important feature was a variable coupling mechanism consisting of a ciosed wire loop suspended by a moveable dielectric arm, which extends into the cavity through a small hole in the cavity end plate. The Q of the cavity was measured by the decrement method. Measurements were made on an unpolished electroplated leadmore » surface and on several types of tin surfaces. A curve shows variation of cavity Q with temperature. A table shows values of surface resistivity obtained. (A.G.W.)« less
  • Microwave energy stored in a superconducting cavity is released to an output circuit in a short time by a gas discharge switch which is different from previous works. Output pulse of 350 times the input cw power fed to the cavity is obtained. A cw microwave is incident on a superconducting lead cavity of TE/sub 011/ cylindrical mode with resonant frequency 2.868 GHz and unloaded Q of 3.8 x 10/sup 6/. A small semicircular glass tube with two electrodes and with rarefied helium gas is set inside the cavity. Pulsed discharge current of the order of 100 A and timemore » width 0.4 ..mu..sec produces high-density plasmas which may be equivalent to a metal loop antenna. Large microwave output pulses of time width 0.17 ..mu..sec are produced. It is suggested that the apparatus may be extended to millimeter microwave pulse production.« less
  • A superconducting polycrystalline BaPb/sub 1-//sub x/Bi/sub x/O3 thin film of 300 nm thickness is studied as a quick microwave switch. The film is installed in a cylindrical TE111-mode cavity made of copper with a resonant frequency of 2.84 GHz; the cavity is evacuated and immersed in liquid helium. Transition from the super- to normal conducting state of the film is made by a pulse current through the film with a current density of the order of 3 x 10X A/mS. The microwave pulse power, which is 1.2 times the cw input to the cavity, is extracted in a short timemore » of less than 200 ns. The time response of the film switch is less than 30 ns, which is the limit of our measuring system. The observed output powers are compared with numerical analyses, and the possibilities for improving the pulse power gain are discussed.« less