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Title: Preparation of mesoporous titanium dioxide anode by a film- and pore-forming agent for the dye-sensitized solar cell

Abstract

Highlights: • PVP is used as a film- and pore-forming agent to prepare the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} anode. • The TiO{sub 2} anode supplies high surface area for the dye adsorption. • The DSSC efficiency is strongly dependent on the pore properties of the TiO{sub 2} anode. • The DSSC efficiency with the TiO{sub 2} anode prepared by 20 wt% PVP reaches 8.39%. - Abstract: A novel mean of generating mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) anodes by employing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the film- and pore-forming agent are proposed for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The influences on the morphology and photovoltaic performances of the TiO{sub 2} anodes are investigated by adjusting the PVP content in synthesizing the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} anodes. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the DSSC is found to be strongly dependent on the pore properties of the TiO{sub 2} anode. After the sintering process, the removal of the PVP leaves porously interconnected channel structures inside the TiO{sub 2} anode, supplying enhanced specific surface area for the dye adsorption as well as the efficient electron transmission. As a result, the TiO{sub 2} anode prepared by 20 wt% PVP presents the highest performances, based on which the DSSC achieves themore » highest conversion efficiency of 8.39%, approximately increased by 56.53% than that of the DSSC fabricated without PVP (5.36%).« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22581493
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Research Bulletin; Journal Volume: 76; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ANODES; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; FILMS; IMPEDANCE; NANOSTRUCTURES; PHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERSION; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; POROUS MATERIALS; PVP; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; SINTERING; SOLAR CELLS; SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA; SPECTROSCOPY; SURFACE AREA; TITANIUM OXIDES

Citation Formats

Hou, Wenjing, Xiao, Yaoming, E-mail: ymxiao@sxu.edu.cn, Han, Gaoyi, E-mail: han_gaoyis@sxu.edu.cn, Zhou, Haihan, Chang, Yunzhen, and Zhang, Ying. Preparation of mesoporous titanium dioxide anode by a film- and pore-forming agent for the dye-sensitized solar cell. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/J.MATERRESBULL.2015.12.025.
Hou, Wenjing, Xiao, Yaoming, E-mail: ymxiao@sxu.edu.cn, Han, Gaoyi, E-mail: han_gaoyis@sxu.edu.cn, Zhou, Haihan, Chang, Yunzhen, & Zhang, Ying. Preparation of mesoporous titanium dioxide anode by a film- and pore-forming agent for the dye-sensitized solar cell. United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATERRESBULL.2015.12.025.
Hou, Wenjing, Xiao, Yaoming, E-mail: ymxiao@sxu.edu.cn, Han, Gaoyi, E-mail: han_gaoyis@sxu.edu.cn, Zhou, Haihan, Chang, Yunzhen, and Zhang, Ying. 2016. "Preparation of mesoporous titanium dioxide anode by a film- and pore-forming agent for the dye-sensitized solar cell". United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATERRESBULL.2015.12.025.
@article{osti_22581493,
title = {Preparation of mesoporous titanium dioxide anode by a film- and pore-forming agent for the dye-sensitized solar cell},
author = {Hou, Wenjing and Xiao, Yaoming, E-mail: ymxiao@sxu.edu.cn and Han, Gaoyi, E-mail: han_gaoyis@sxu.edu.cn and Zhou, Haihan and Chang, Yunzhen and Zhang, Ying},
abstractNote = {Highlights: • PVP is used as a film- and pore-forming agent to prepare the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} anode. • The TiO{sub 2} anode supplies high surface area for the dye adsorption. • The DSSC efficiency is strongly dependent on the pore properties of the TiO{sub 2} anode. • The DSSC efficiency with the TiO{sub 2} anode prepared by 20 wt% PVP reaches 8.39%. - Abstract: A novel mean of generating mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) anodes by employing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the film- and pore-forming agent are proposed for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The influences on the morphology and photovoltaic performances of the TiO{sub 2} anodes are investigated by adjusting the PVP content in synthesizing the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} anodes. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the DSSC is found to be strongly dependent on the pore properties of the TiO{sub 2} anode. After the sintering process, the removal of the PVP leaves porously interconnected channel structures inside the TiO{sub 2} anode, supplying enhanced specific surface area for the dye adsorption as well as the efficient electron transmission. As a result, the TiO{sub 2} anode prepared by 20 wt% PVP presents the highest performances, based on which the DSSC achieves the highest conversion efficiency of 8.39%, approximately increased by 56.53% than that of the DSSC fabricated without PVP (5.36%).},
doi = {10.1016/J.MATERRESBULL.2015.12.025},
journal = {Materials Research Bulletin},
number = ,
volume = 76,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 4
}
  • Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) modules are generally made by interconnecting large photoelectrode strips with optimized thickness (∼14 μm) and show lower current density (J{sub SC}) compared with their single cells. We found out that the key to achieving higher J{sub SC} in large area devices is optimized photoelectrode volume (V{sub D}), viz., thickness and area which facilitate the electron channeling towards working electrode. By imposing constraints on electronic path in a DSC stack, we achieved >50% increased J{sub SC} and ∼60% increment in photoelectric conversion efficiency in photoelectrodes of similar V{sub D} (∼3.36 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 3}) without using any metallic gridmore » or a special interconnections.« less
  • Multi-layer mesoporous TiO 2 prepared by screen printing is widely used for fabrication of high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we compare the three types of ~10 um thick mesoporous TiO 2 films, which were screen printed as 1-, 2- and 4-layers using the same TiO 2 nanocrystal paste. The layer boundary of the multi-layer mesoporous TiO 2 films was observed in the cross-section SEM. The existence of a layer boundary could reduce the photoelectron diffusion length with the increase of layer number. However, the photoelectron diffusion lengths of the Z907 dye sensitized solar cells based on these different layeredmore » mesoporous TiO 2 films are all longer than the film thickness. Consequently, the photovoltaic performance seems to have little dependence on the layer number of the multi-layer TiO 2 based DSSCs.« less
  • Highlights: • A new hierarchically macro–mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film is fabricated via TiF{sub 4} hydrolysis. • TiF{sub 4} hydrolysis is accompanied with self-assembled process of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • The hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2} films show higher performance than nonporous film. - Abstract: The hierarchically porous structure of TiO{sub 2} film plays an important role on improved photoelectric conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is highly required to develop a facile strategy to prepare the hierarchical porous photoelectrode. In this study, a novel hierarchically macro–mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film as photoelectrode of DSSCs is fabricated by a self-assembled processmore » of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles via TiF{sub 4} hydrolysis. The hydrolysis of TiF{sub 4} is accompanied with self-assembled process of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the surface of electrophoretic-deposited titanate nanotube film which provides effective active sites for the deposition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles owing to a large amount of hydroxyl groups, resulting in the formation of hierarchically porous structures. The hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2} film is mainly composed of mesopores with a size of 2–50 nm and macropores with a wide range of 0.5–5 μm, which contribute to an obviously higher conversion performance (6.70%) than nonporous P25-TiO{sub 2} film (4.01%). The main reasons for enhanced conversion efficiency of hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2} film can be attributed to adsorption of more dye molecules, rapid diffusion and efficient transport of electrolyte, and longer electron lifetime. This work may provide new insights into preparing porous structure of TiO{sub 2} films in DSSCs for modification of photoelectric conversion efficiency.« less
  • Mesoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} nanopowder was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 130 deg. C for 12 h. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), HRTEM, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. The as-synthesized sample with narrow pore size distribution had average pore diameter about 3-4 nm. The specific BET surface area of the as-synthesized sample was about 193 m{sup 2}/g. Mesoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} nanopowders (prepared by this study) showed higher photocatalytic activity than the nanorods TiO{sub 2}, nanofibers TiO{sub 2} mesoporous TiO{sub 2}, and commercial TiO{sub 2}more » nanoparticles (P-25, JRC-01, and JRC-03). The solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}) of the cell using the mesoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} was about 6.30% with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 13.28 mA/cm{sup 2}, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.702 V and the fill factor (ff) of 0.676; while {eta} of the cell using P-25 reached 5.82% with Jsc of 12.74 mA/cm{sup 2}, Voc of 0.704 V and ff of 0.649.« less
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