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Title: MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: A System for Automatically Calculating Organ and Effective Dose for Fluoroscopically-Guided Procedures

Abstract

Purpose: A system was developed that automatically calculates the organ and effective dose for individual fluoroscopically-guided procedures using a log of the clinical exposure parameters. Methods: We have previously developed a dose tracking system (DTS) to provide a real-time color-coded 3D- mapping of skin dose. This software produces a log file of all geometry and exposure parameters for every x-ray pulse during a procedure. The data in the log files is input into PCXMC, a Monte Carlo program that calculates organ and effective dose for projections and exposure parameters set by the user. We developed a MATLAB program to read data from the log files produced by the DTS and to automatically generate the definition files in the format used by PCXMC. The processing is done at the end of a procedure after all exposures are completed. Since there are thousands of exposure pulses with various parameters for fluoroscopy, DA and DSA and at various projections, the data for exposures with similar parameters is grouped prior to entry into PCXMC to reduce the number of Monte Carlo calculations that need to be performed. Results: The software developed automatically transfers data from the DTS log file to PCXMC and runs themore » program for each grouping of exposure pulses. When the dose from all exposure events are calculated, the doses for each organ and all effective doses are summed to obtain procedure totals. For a complicated interventional procedure, the calculations can be completed on a PC without manual intervention in less than 30 minutes depending on the level of data grouping. Conclusion: This system allows organ dose to be calculated for individual procedures for every patient without tedious calculations or data entry so that estimates of stochastic risk can be obtained in addition to the deterministic risk estimate provided by the DTS. Partial support from NIH grant R01EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22562967
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; COMPUTER CODES; FLUOROSCOPY; FORMATES; HAZARDS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; ORGANS; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; STOCHASTIC PROCESSES

Citation Formats

Xiong, Z, Vijayan, S, Rana, V, Rudin, S, and Bednarek, D. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: A System for Automatically Calculating Organ and Effective Dose for Fluoroscopically-Guided Procedures. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4925486.
Xiong, Z, Vijayan, S, Rana, V, Rudin, S, & Bednarek, D. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: A System for Automatically Calculating Organ and Effective Dose for Fluoroscopically-Guided Procedures. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4925486.
Xiong, Z, Vijayan, S, Rana, V, Rudin, S, and Bednarek, D. Mon . "MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: A System for Automatically Calculating Organ and Effective Dose for Fluoroscopically-Guided Procedures". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4925486.
@article{osti_22562967,
title = {MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: A System for Automatically Calculating Organ and Effective Dose for Fluoroscopically-Guided Procedures},
author = {Xiong, Z and Vijayan, S and Rana, V and Rudin, S and Bednarek, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: A system was developed that automatically calculates the organ and effective dose for individual fluoroscopically-guided procedures using a log of the clinical exposure parameters. Methods: We have previously developed a dose tracking system (DTS) to provide a real-time color-coded 3D- mapping of skin dose. This software produces a log file of all geometry and exposure parameters for every x-ray pulse during a procedure. The data in the log files is input into PCXMC, a Monte Carlo program that calculates organ and effective dose for projections and exposure parameters set by the user. We developed a MATLAB program to read data from the log files produced by the DTS and to automatically generate the definition files in the format used by PCXMC. The processing is done at the end of a procedure after all exposures are completed. Since there are thousands of exposure pulses with various parameters for fluoroscopy, DA and DSA and at various projections, the data for exposures with similar parameters is grouped prior to entry into PCXMC to reduce the number of Monte Carlo calculations that need to be performed. Results: The software developed automatically transfers data from the DTS log file to PCXMC and runs the program for each grouping of exposure pulses. When the dose from all exposure events are calculated, the doses for each organ and all effective doses are summed to obtain procedure totals. For a complicated interventional procedure, the calculations can be completed on a PC without manual intervention in less than 30 minutes depending on the level of data grouping. Conclusion: This system allows organ dose to be calculated for individual procedures for every patient without tedious calculations or data entry so that estimates of stochastic risk can be obtained in addition to the deterministic risk estimate provided by the DTS. Partial support from NIH grant R01EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4925486},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}
  • Purpose: The aim of this method was to provide dosimetric data on conceptus dose for the pregnant employee who participates in fluoroscopically-guided interventional procedures. Methods: Scattered air-kerma dose rates were obtained for 17 fluoroscopic projections involved in interventional procedures. These projections were simulated on an anthropomorphic phantom placed on the examination table supine. The operating theater was divided into two grids relative to the long table sides. Each grid consisted of 33 cells spaced 0.50 m apart. During the simulated exposures, at each cell, scatter air-kerma rate was measured at 110 cm from the floor i.e. at the height ofmore » the waist of the pregnant worker. Air-kerma rates were divided by the dose area product (DAP) rate of each exposure to obtain normalized data. For each projection, measurements were performed for 3 kVp and 3 filtration values i.e. for 9 different x-ray spectra. All measurements were performed by using a modern C-arm angiographic system (Siemens Axiom Artis, Siemens, Germany) and a radiation meter equipped with an ionization chamber. Results: The results consist of 153 iso-dose maps, which show the spatial distribution of DAP-normalized scattered air-kerma doses at the waist level of a pregnant worker. Conceptus dose estimation is possible using air-kerma to embryo/fetal dose conversion coefficients published in a previous study (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 16, pp. 1–8, July 2005). Using these maps, occupationally exposed pregnant personnel may select a working position for a certain projection that keeps abdominal dose as low as reasonably achievable. Taking into consideration the regulatory conceptus dose limit for occupational exposure, determination of the maximum workload allowed for the pregnant personnel is also possible. Conclusion: Data produced in this work allow for the anticipation of conceptus dose and the determination of the maximum workload for a pregnant worker from any fluoroscopically-guided interventional procedure. This study was supported by the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Operational Program ‘Education and Lifelong Learning’, ARISTIA (Research project: CONCERT)« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess eye-lens dose for patients who underwent brain CT examinations using two dose reduction Methods: organ-based tube current modulation (OBTCM) and in-plane bismuth shielding method. Methods: This study received institutional review board approval; written informed consent to participate was obtained from all patients. Ninety patients who underwent the routine brain CT examination were randomly assigned to three groups, ie. routine, OBTCM, and bismuth shield. The OBTCM technique reduced the tube current when the X-ray tube rotates in front of patients’ eye-lens region. The patients in the bismuth shield group were covered one-plymore » bismuth shield in the eyes’ region. Eye-lens doses were measured using TLD-100H chips and the total effective doses were calculated using CT-Expo according to the CT scanning parameters. The surface doses for patients at off-center positions were assessed to evaluate the off-centering effect. Results: Phantom measurements indicates that OBTCM technique could reduced by 26% to 28% of the surface dose to the eye lens, and increased by 25% of the surface dose at the opposed incident direction at the angle of 180°. Patients’ eye-lens doses were reduced 16.9% and 30.5% dose of bismuth shield scan and OBTCM scan, respectively compared to the routine scan. The eye-lens doses were apparently increased when the table position was lower than isocenter. Conclusion: Reducing the dose to the radiosensitive organs, such as eye lens, during routine brain CT examinations could lower the radiation risks. The OBTCM technique and in-plane bismuth shielding could be used to reduce the eye-lens dose. The eye-lens dose could be effectively reduced using OBTCM scan without interfering the diagnostic image quality. Patient position relative the CT gantry also affects the dose level of the eye lens. This study was supported by the grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST103-2314-B-182-009-MY2), and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CMRPD1C0682)« less
  • Purpose: Stationary table acquisitions (Bolus tracking) in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) can Result in dose length products (DLP) comparable to spiral scans. It is today unclear whether or not the effective dose (E) for Bolus Tracking can be approximated using target region specific conversion factors (E/DLP). The purpose of this study was to investigate how E depends on the anatomical location of the Bolus Tracking in relation to Chest CT scans with the same DLP. Methods: Effective doses were approximated for the ICRP 110 adult Reference Male (AM) and adult Reference Female (FM) computational voxel phantoms using software for CTmore » dose approximations (pre-simulated MC data). The effective dose was first approximated for a Chest CT scan using spiral technique and a CTDIvol (32 cm) of 6 mGy. The effective dose from the spiral scan was then compared to E approximated for contiguous Bolus Tracking acquisitions (1 cm separation), with a total collimation of 1 cm, over different locations of the chest of the voxel phantoms. The number of rotations used for the Bolus Tracking acquisitions was adjusted to yield the same DLP (32 cm) as the spiral scan. Results: Depending on the anatomical location of the Bolus Tracking, E ranged by factors of 1.3 to 6.8 for the AM phantom and 1.4 to 3.3 for the AF phantom, compared to the effective dose of the spiral scans. The greatest E for the Bolus Tracking acquisitions was observed for anatomical locations coinciding with breast tissue. This can be expected as breast tissue has a high tissue weighting factor in the calculation of E. Conclusion: For Chest CT scans, the effective dose from Bolus Tracking is highly dependent on the anatomical location where the scan is administered and will not always accurately be represented using target region specific conversion factors.« less
  • Purpose: To find effective setting methods to mitigate the irradiation injure in synchrotron radiation microangiography(SRA) by Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: A mouse 1-D head model and a segmented voxel mouse head phantom were simulated by EGSnrc/Dosxyznrc code to investigate the dose enhancement effect of the iodine contrast agent irradiated by a monochromatic synchrotron radiation(SR) source. The influence of, like iodine concentration (IC), vessel width and depth, with and without skull layer protection and the various incident X ray energies, were simulated. The dose enhancement effect and the absolute dose based on the segmented voxel mouse head phantom were evaluated. Results:more » The dose enhancement ratio depends little on the irradiation depth, but strongly on the IC, which is linearly increases with IC. The skull layer protection cannot be ignored in SRA, the 700µm thick skull could decrease 10% of the dose. The incident X-ray energy can significantly affact the dose. E.g. compared to the dose of 33.2keV for 50mgI/ml, the 32.7keV dose decreases 38%, whereas the dose of 33.7 keV increases 69.2%, and the variation will strengthen more with enhanced IC. The segmented voxel mouse head phantom also showed that the average dose enhancement effect and the maximal voxel dose per photon depends little on the iodine voxel volume ratio, but strongly on IC. Conclusion: To decrease dose damage in SRA, the high-Z contrast agent should be used as little as possible, and try to avoid radiating locally the injected position immediately after the contrast agent injection. The fragile vessel containing iodine should avoid closely irradiating. Avoiding irradiating through the no or thin skull region, or appending thin equivalent material from outside to protect is also a better method. As long as SRA image quality is ensured, using incident X-ray energy as low as possible.« less
  • Purpose: To develop an optimization algorithm to reduce normal brain dose by optimizing couch and collimator angles for single isocenter multiple targets treatment of stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Three metastatic brain lesions were retrospectively planned using single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Three matrices were developed to calculate the projection of each lesion on Beam’s Eye View (BEV) by the rotating couch, collimator and gantry respectively. The island blocking problem was addressed by computing the total area of open space between any two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. The couch and collimator angles resulting in the smallest open areas weremore » the optimized angles for each treatment arc. Two treatment plans with and without couch and collimator angle optimization were developed using the same objective functions and to achieve 99% of each target volume receiving full prescription dose of 18Gy. Plan quality was evaluated by calculating each target’s Conformity Index (CI), Gradient Index (GI), and Homogeneity index (HI), and absolute volume of normal brain V8Gy, V10Gy, V12Gy, and V14Gy. Results: Using the new couch/collimator optimization strategy, dose to normal brain tissue was reduced substantially. V8, V10, V12, and V14 decreased by 2.3%, 3.6%, 3.5%, and 6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the conformity index, gradient index, and homogeneity index between two treatment plans with and without the new optimization algorithm. Conclusion: We have developed a solution to the island blocking problem in delivering radiation to multiple brain metastases with shared isocenter. Significant reduction in dose to normal brain was achieved by using optimal couch and collimator angles that minimize total area of open space between any of the two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. This technique has been integrated into Eclipse treatment system using scripting API.« less