skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Force law in material media, hidden momentum and quantum phases

Abstract

We address to the force law in classical electrodynamics of material media, paying attention on the force term due to time variation of hidden momentum of magnetic dipoles. We highlight that the emergence of this force component is required by the general theorem, deriving zero total momentum for any static configuration of charges/currents. At the same time, we disclose the impossibility to add this force term covariantly to the Lorentz force law in material media. We further show that the adoption of the Einstein–Laub force law does not resolve the issue, because for a small electric/magnetic dipole, the density of Einstein–Laub force integrates exactly to the same equation, like the Lorentz force with the inclusion of hidden momentum contribution. Thus, none of the available expressions for the force on a moving dipole is compatible with the relativistic transformation of force, and we support this statement with a number of particular examples. In this respect, we suggest applying the Lagrangian approach to the derivation of the force law in a magnetized/polarized medium. In the framework of this approach we obtain the novel expression for the force on a small electric/magnetic dipole, with the novel expression for its generalized momentum. The lattermore » expression implies two novel quantum effects with non-topological phases, when an electric dipole is moving in an electric field, and when a magnetic dipole is moving in a magnetic field. These phases, in general, are not related to dynamical effects, because they are not equal to zero, when the classical force on a dipole is vanishing. The implications of the obtained results are discussed.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)
  2. Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)
  3. Okan University, Akfirat, Istanbul (Turkey)
  4. (Turkey)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22560327
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Annals of Physics; Journal Volume: 369; Journal Issue: Complete; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ELECTRIC DIPOLES; ELECTRIC FIELDS; ELECTRODYNAMICS; LAGRANGIAN FUNCTION; LORENTZ FORCE; MAGNETIC DIPOLES; MAGNETIC FIELDS; QUANTUM MECHANICS; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; TRANSFORMATIONS; VARIATIONS

Citation Formats

Kholmetskii, Alexander L., E-mail: alkholmetskii@gmail.com, Missevitch, Oleg V., Yarman, T., and Savronik, Eskisehir. Force law in material media, hidden momentum and quantum phases. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2016.03.004.
Kholmetskii, Alexander L., E-mail: alkholmetskii@gmail.com, Missevitch, Oleg V., Yarman, T., & Savronik, Eskisehir. Force law in material media, hidden momentum and quantum phases. United States. doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2016.03.004.
Kholmetskii, Alexander L., E-mail: alkholmetskii@gmail.com, Missevitch, Oleg V., Yarman, T., and Savronik, Eskisehir. 2016. "Force law in material media, hidden momentum and quantum phases". United States. doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2016.03.004.
@article{osti_22560327,
title = {Force law in material media, hidden momentum and quantum phases},
author = {Kholmetskii, Alexander L., E-mail: alkholmetskii@gmail.com and Missevitch, Oleg V. and Yarman, T. and Savronik, Eskisehir},
abstractNote = {We address to the force law in classical electrodynamics of material media, paying attention on the force term due to time variation of hidden momentum of magnetic dipoles. We highlight that the emergence of this force component is required by the general theorem, deriving zero total momentum for any static configuration of charges/currents. At the same time, we disclose the impossibility to add this force term covariantly to the Lorentz force law in material media. We further show that the adoption of the Einstein–Laub force law does not resolve the issue, because for a small electric/magnetic dipole, the density of Einstein–Laub force integrates exactly to the same equation, like the Lorentz force with the inclusion of hidden momentum contribution. Thus, none of the available expressions for the force on a moving dipole is compatible with the relativistic transformation of force, and we support this statement with a number of particular examples. In this respect, we suggest applying the Lagrangian approach to the derivation of the force law in a magnetized/polarized medium. In the framework of this approach we obtain the novel expression for the force on a small electric/magnetic dipole, with the novel expression for its generalized momentum. The latter expression implies two novel quantum effects with non-topological phases, when an electric dipole is moving in an electric field, and when a magnetic dipole is moving in a magnetic field. These phases, in general, are not related to dynamical effects, because they are not equal to zero, when the classical force on a dipole is vanishing. The implications of the obtained results are discussed.},
doi = {10.1016/J.AOP.2016.03.004},
journal = {Annals of Physics},
number = Complete,
volume = 369,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin forcemore » associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.« less
  • The many A{sub 5}B{sub 3} phases that exhibit hexagonal Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structures by and large have a nearly unique abilities to bind diverse heteratoms Z in a preformed cavity within a chain of confacial trigonal antiprisms of A. The historical development of this chemistry as interstitially stabilized Nowotny phases and recent research to clarify the necessity for Z and the range of Z possible in certain hosts are described. Some hosts may bind as many as 20 different interstitial Z. Structures, stoichiometric relationships, volume effects, electronic guidelines, anomalies, Nowotny phases that require Z for stability, and a few bandmore » calculations are described. The special cases of hosts composed of divalent cations with pnictogens (As-Bi) and tetrels (Si-Pb) and their reactions with H and F are considered. The former Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type phase take up some H, but many convert at higher H or F concentrations to the orthorhombic Ca{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type (formerly {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}) structure. Many of the nominally valence-precise tetrelides with Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3} (or other) structures react with H or F to give the new stuffed Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3} versions with Z in a tetrahedral cavity (a Ca{sub 5}Sn{sub 3}F or La{sub 5}Pb{sub 3}O type). Some early results demonstrate that highly significant reduction of high-temperature corrosion rates of Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} can be secured for Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}Z, Z = C or O. The number of uninvestigated Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type host-interstitial Z systems and the unknown ways in which various Z affect chemical and physical properties in each system are very large.« less
  • The origin of ferromagnetism is investigated in epitaxial Co:ZnO thin films which become weakly ferromagnetic after annealing in Zn vapor. Conventional characterization techniques indicate no change after treatment. However, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling clearly indicates the presence of Co(0) in the Zn-treated films; x-ray absorption fine structure is utilized to identify the secondary phase as ferromagnetic CoZn. This work demonstrates that the potential for ferromagnetic secondary phases must be thoroughly discounted, through painstaking materials characterization, before claims of intrinsic ferromagnetism can be made.
  • The quest to discover a dilute magnetic semiconductor which is ferromagnetic at room temperature has led to extensive research on doped semiconducting oxides. However, the wide range of reported properties has raised doubts regarding the presence of intrinsic ferromagnetism in these materials. Here we explore the origin of ferromagnetism in epitaxial Co:ZnO thin films, which are paramagnetic but become weakly ferromagnetic (~0.05 μB/Co) after annealing in Zn vapor to introduce interstitial Zn. Conventional bulk materials characterization techniques indicate no phase segregation or Co reduction has occurred. However, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling clearly indicates the presence of Co(0) inmore » the Zn-treated films; x-ray absorption spectroscopy is utilized to identify the secondary phase as ferromagnetic CoZn (1.5 μB/Co, TC ~ 400 – 450 K). This work demonstrates that the potential for ferromagnetic secondary phases in doped oxides must be thoroughly discounted, through painstaking materials characterization, before claims of intrinsic ferromagnetism can be made.« less